Rocks and Minerals

Table of Content

According to Webster’s Dictionary, citrine is a well-known mineral that is an inorganic substance. It is a type of quartz and is distinguished by its yellowish-orange color. Citrine is highly valued as a gemstone because it combines both affordability and beauty. Furthermore, it holds special significance as the birthstone for November and the 17th anniversary gemstone. Additionally, it symbolizes hope, youth, health, and fidelity. In ancient times, people used citrine as protection against snake venom and negative thoughts. Moreover, citrine goes by alternative names such as Imperial Topaz, Oriental Topaz, and Precious Topaz.

According to Feather & Snyder (1999), the mineral is comprised of elements that can be located on the periodic table. For instance, citrine consists of silicon and oxygen, which is denoted by its chemical formula SiO2 (

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Webster’s Dictionary classifies citrine as a silicate mineral due to its composition of silicon, oxygen, and various minerals.

Feather & Snyder (1999) state that physical properties refer to the observable characteristics of a substance that do not necessitate its transformation into a different substance. In minerals, hardness, cleavage, fracture, streak, and luster are identified as the five primary physical properties.

The hardness of a mineral is determined by its ease of being scratched, usually measured using the Mohs hardness scale from one to ten. According to Feather and Snyder (1999), a rating of one indicates the softest mineral, while a rating of ten indicates the hardest. All types of quartz have a hardness score of seven. Since citrine belongs to the quartz family, it also has a hardness rating of seven (

According to Feather & Snyder (1999), minerals that have cleavage are identified by their smooth flat surfaces when broken. Cleavage is determined by the atomic arrangement of these minerals. On the other hand, citrine does not have cleavage and instead shows fracture when broken. Fracture refers to minerals that have rough or jagged edges upon breaking. In the case of citrine, it lacks cleavage and also exhibits fracture (Feather & Snyder, 1999).

According to Feather & Snyder (1999), the term used to describe the color of a mineral when it is crushed into powder is streak. In the case of citrine, its streak color is white.

According to Feather & Snyder (1999), luster is the reflection of light from the surface of a mineral. states that citrine has a vitreous luster, which gives it a glass-like appearance.

According to information from, Citrine is widely found across the globe. However, Brazil remains the preferred destination for many miners and manufacturers due to its exceptional quality and abundant availability of this gemstone.

Citrine, found in jewelry and oscillators for radios (, is often used as a replacement for yellow sapphire and yellow diamond. Rocks contain minerals of different types, and the next section will delve into the makeup of rocks through minerals and their formation process.

The rock cycle encompasses the creation of rocks from minerals, mineraloids, glass, or organic matter (Feather & Snyder, 1999). Although rocks are familiar to many individuals, their formation process may not be widely known. This report seeks to offer details on the various stages within the rock cycle and its three distinct rock types.

James Hutton, a prominent farmer and the originator of modern geoscience (, introduced the rock cycle which remains widely employed by scientists globally in present times.

Igneous rocks, also known as fire rocks, can form underground or above ground (Feather & Snyder, 1999). They are all created during the volcano formation process ( Igneous rocks exist in two forms: intrusive and extrusive.

Feather & Snyder (1999) state that intrusive rocks, also referred to as igneous rocks, are formed beneath the earth’s surface. These rocks are created when magma becomes trapped in pockets below the surface and cools down (

Extrusive rocks form when lava cools either on or close to the earth’s surface, usually originating from volcanoes.

(Feather & Snyder, 1999) The cooling of lava occurs when it is exposed to air and moisture, resulting in its hardening and transformation into extrusive rocks like rhyolite.

Rhyolite, a type of extrusive igneous rock, exhibits various appearances resulting from different eruption styles (source: Its composition can include different colors like dark gray or pink (source: Remarkably, some remarkable rhyolite specimens exhibit a unique spider webbing pattern.

According to, Rhyolite is a type of rock that is closely associated with granite. However, it has much smaller crystals that are not visible without magnification. Rhyolite forms quickly and has a shiny appearance. Its composition includes minerals such as quartz, feldspar, mica, and hornblende.

According to, rhyolite, a volcanic rock, is found worldwide in volcanic mountain regions. However, certain locations have specific colors of rhyolite. As mentioned by, California and specific areas in Nevada exclusively contain red types of rhyolite.

Rhyolite, a volcanic rock, lacks practical applications and specific uses despite its potential appeal to rock collectors.

There are various types of rocks, including igneous and sedimentary rock.

Sediments, consisting of rock fragments, mineral grains, and remnants of plants and animals, are carried by various forces such as wind, water, ice, or gravity. Over time, these sediments come together to create sedimentary rock.

Sedimentary rocks are formed when sediments are pressed or cemented together (Feather & Snyder, 1999). These rocks make up approximately 75% of the earth’s surface. There are two main classifications for sedimentary rocks: detrial and chemical.

Detrial rocks, also known as clastic rocks, are formed from broken fragments or other rocks (Feather & Snyder, 1999). Similar to all sedimentary rocks, these broken fragments compact or cement together.

Clastic rocks, also known as detrial sedimentary rocks, get their name from their texture. This term originates from the Greek word meaning “broken” (Feather & Snyder, 1999). Unlike chemical sedimentary rocks, clastic rocks form from solid grains ( Sandstone and shale are common examples of clastic rocks.

Chemical sedimentary rocks, also known as rocks that are formed by minerals precipitating out of water, are created when minerals deposits harden after evaporation. Limestone serves as an example of a chemical sedimentary rock.

Limestone is a chemical sedimentary rock that results from the compression or cementation of sediments (Feather & Snyder, 1999). Its color varies, but gray is the most prevalent ( Fossils, such as shells and animal remains, are frequently found in limestone, and certain rocks are primarily composed of fossils (

Limestone is mainly made up of calcite, but the specific minerals present can vary greatly depending on the environment where it is found. Some notable additional minerals found in limestone include dolomite and aragonite.

Limestone is found in marine environments and is widely distributed worldwide.

Limestone is a versatile building stone that can be easily carved and cut without splitting. It is particularly suitable for foundations and walls that do not require a high polish. Additionally, limestone is used in the production of concrete. Some factories utilize limestone to purify waste gases and water prior to their release into the environment. The discussion on igneous and sedimentary rocks has been concluded. Next, the third and final type of rock, metamorphic rocks, will be discussed.

Metamorphic rocks are formed through the influence of pressure, temperature, and fluids on existing rocks within the Earth’s layers. As rocks become deeply buried, they undergo deformation which leads to the crystallization of new minerals, resulting in metamorphic rock formation ( There are two categories of metamorphic rocks: foliated and non-foliated.

Foliated rocks, also known as rocks with parallel bands of flattened mineral grains, resemble stepping-stones or stair steps (Feather & Snyder, 1999). These rocks form layers through exposure to heat and pressure, distinguishing them from non-foliated rocks.

Non-foliated rocks, which are also referred to as metamorphic rocks without banding, lack the formation of mineral bands found in foliated rocks (Feather & Snyder, 1999). An instance of a non-foliated rock is marble, where minerals undergo transformations, growth, and reorganization.

Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that forms from limestone during metamorphism. Its color varies depending on the impurities it contains, and it can always be distinguished by its softness compared to glass (source:

Marble is primarily composed of calcite (source: Various types of marble contain different mineral combinations, producing a wide array of colors (source:

Marble is abundant in numerous countries including Belgium, France, Greece, India, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. South American nations also have access to marble reserves. The state of Georgia in the United States stands as the primary producer of marble. Moreover, states like Alabama, Colorado, Montana, Tennessee, Texas, and Vermont also contribute to the production of this stone (source:

Marble is a highly prized material known for its aesthetic appeal, durability, and ability to withstand fire and erosion. The ancient Greeks utilized marble extensively in constructing buildings and sculptures, and it continues to be used in contemporary times for floors and various structural components. Moreover, crushed fragments of marble are employed as abrasives in soaps, while pulverized marble is utilized for road pavement and roofing materials (source: In conclusion, this covers the three categories of rocks, and now we will delve into the rock cycle process.

At depth or at the earth’s surface, molten rock material solidifies to create igneous rocks.

The mineral structures of rocks at the earth’s surface become disrupted due to uplift and exposure, causing them to become unstable.

The minerals undergo fragmentation and subsequent transportation and deposition.

The transformation of sediments through compaction and cementation processes results in the formation of sedimentary rocks.

Formation of igneous and sedimentary rocks can occur due to variations in temperature and pressure.

Metamorphic rocks form when rocks undergo a transformation, either through physical or chemical changes, typically at high temperatures.

When metamorphic rocks are exposed to high temperatures, they can partially melt. This melting process is followed by the formation of new crystals.

The process described in this passage results in the formation of igneous rocks. Uplift and erosion can reveal all different types of rocks.

Surface, restarting the cycle (

The diagram on this page was created by Fallan Davis from

None (Sources are cited)

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Rocks and Minerals. (2018, Jun 20). Retrieved from

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