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Volcanoes Research Paper VolcanoesA volcano is



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    Vents Essay, Research Paper


    A vent is a blowhole in the Earth s crust through which magma ( liquefied stone ) and

    gas are released. The magma, once it reaches the surface, is called lava. The lava forms a

    hill around the blowhole or gap. The lava can flux out as a syrupy liquid, or it may

    explode from the blowhole as solid or liquid atoms.

    Types of Vents

    There are three different types of vents that can be formed around a blowhole. The

    ways to place each type are what it is composed of and what into what form it is

    formed. The shield vent, which takes its name signifier its resemblance to the shields of

    early Germanic warriors, is a softly break outing flow that forms gently slopping mountains.

    The dome that is formed over a period of clip affecting multiple one to ten metre midst

    lava flows. This type of vent is found largely in Hawaii and Iceland.

    The 2nd type of vent dome formation is the cinder-cone. This vent has

    high gas content and high viscousness ( the thickness of the lava ) , hence bring forthing a

    much more explosive eruption than that of the shield vent. These vents blew

    volcanic bombs and clinkers into the air which land beside the blowhole to organize a step-sided

    cone. Since these vents consist of loose stuffs they do non turn every bit big as other

    vents. Most cinder-cone vents are formed by a individual eruption.

    The 3rd type of vent is the composite vent. It is the tallest of all the

    different types. It is a combination of shield and cinder-cone vents. It goes through

    a rhythm of quiet eruptions followed by an explosive eruption of highly syrupy lava.

    The fluid lava forms an eroding resistant shell over the bing dust organizing a strong,

    deep-sided volcanic cone.

    A vent can besides be classified by how active it is or has been in the yesteryear.

    Geologist use the footings: active, hibernating, and nonextant to sort how active it is. If a

    vent has erupted within the past 50 old ages it is referred to as active. A vent that

    erupted many old ages ago but now has no mark of life is called dormant. If scientist feel that

    a peculiar vent will non of all time erupt once more they term it extinct.

    Volcanic Structure

    There are four chief parts of a vent. The blowhole is the channel that gas, ash and

    Rock is ejected. Second, the magma chamber that hold the magma. Third, the cone is

    merely the mountain that is formed around the blowhole. Finally, the crater is a bowl shaped

    depression environing the blowhole.

    There are many unobserved forces beneath a vent that alter stone below the crust to

    cause a vent, and wholly change the landscape of the Earth. A vent effects the

    Earth in many different ways. Of class, the most obvious is the mountain formed on the


    One of the most dramatic alterations to the geological characteristics of the Earth is a

    caldera. A caldera is a immense bowl-shaped crater in the land at least 2 stat mis in diameter.

    Scientists assume that these monolithic craters are formed at the terminal of a volcanoes life one time

    the magma chamber is emptied. This causes the vent to fall in under its ain

    weight. The 2nd deepest lake in the United States, Crater Lake, was formed in a

    caldera. It is about six stat mis across and two thousand pess at the deepest point.

    An interesting formation underneath a vent is a lava tunnel. Lava tunnels start

    out as horizontal lava channels which form when the surface of a big lava flow hardens

    but the lava beneath remains liquefied and continues to flux. At the terminal of the eruption the

    lava channel is empty and so referred to as a lava tunnel. The tunnels can be anyplace

    from a few inches to several paces in diameter. The Kasamura tunnel is the largest

    known lava tunnel. It is near the Kilauea vent in Hawaii, and it twists for more than

    six stat mis beneath the surface.

    An pyrogenic invasion is formed when the intense force per unit area of the stones above a

    magma chamber force some of the magma through crac

    Kansas and weak topographic points in the Earth.

    The magma so solidifies bring forthing multitudes of pyrogenic stone. One type of pyrogenic

    invasion is a butch. A butch is hardened magma in a perpendicular cleft or crevice organizing a

    sheetlike mass of pyrogenic stone. A sill is precisely like a butch except it hardens to organize a

    horizontal sheet of pyrogenic stone. The sill may be 100s of pess thick and extent for

    many stat mis. A 3rd type of pyrogenic invasion is the laccolith. A laccolith consequences from

    remarkably stiff irrupting magma that may non flux easy plenty to distribute between beds

    of stone to for a sill. Alternatively the magma pushes upward on stones doing domelike bumps

    on the Earth s surface. The concluding type of pyrogenic invasion is the batholite. The bathollith

    is nil more than a larger laccolith.

    Types of Volcanic eruptions

    There are five types of eruptions a vent can travel through. A vent can besides

    consist of any combination of eruption, and it can alter the manner it is break outing at any

    clip. The least violent eruption is termed a Hawaiian eruption. This vent is

    characterized by extended fluid lava flows from cardinal blowholes and on occasion is

    accompanied by lava fountains. The following categorization is the Strombolian eruption. This

    eruption will hold reasonably unstable lava flows and have frequent, violent lava fountains.

    It ejects an copiousness of volcanic bombs and clinkers. A Volcanian Volcanic eruption has really

    syrupy magma therefore it has short midst flows of lava around the blowhole. It besides is known

    to hold an copiousness of ejecta. The Palean eruption has more syrupy magma than the

    Volcanian eruption. This vent is classified by immense domes that form over the blowholes.

    Dangerous ash flows called Nuee adrdente are common during this eruption. The concluding

    type of eruption is the Plinian eruption. These are the most violent eruptions and besides

    hold really violent ejecta. Normally they collapse in on themselves organizing instead big


    Types of Ejecta

    Not merely is the highly hot lava of a vent lifelessly but merely is lifelessly is the

    ejecta that a vent blows out. This ejecta could be anyplace from a pinpoint of dust to

    several pess across. These solid ejecta are by and large termed pyroclasts. Tiny droplets of

    lava that are light plenty to be carried long distances by the air current are called volcanic ash.

    More specifically the type in this categorization are no more than four milli-meters in

    diameter. Volcanic clinkers are somewhat larger than the ash. They measure five to thirty-

    two millimetres in diameter.

    Larger pyroclasts are know as volcanic bombs or volcanin blocks, depending on

    the manner in which they are ejected from the vent. Volcanic blocks are immense curiously

    molded balls of hard-boiled lava, frequently boulderlike in its visual aspect. In rare instances these

    blocks can weigh many dozenss. Volcanic bombs harden inside the vent and are ejected

    as solid stuff. On the other manus, volcanic bombs are formed when lava is thrown into

    the air in liquid province and hardens into stone before it lands on the land.

    Cause of a Volcano

    Though there is no scientific cogent evidence of the home base tectonics theory, its is the most

    widely excepted account for this violent phenomenon. The home base tectonics theory

    proposes that the Earth s crust, alternatively of being one big land mass, is really several

    which rest on a lake of liquefied lava.

    It is suggested that when these home bases move even the slightest sum they overlap

    each other and due to the colossal size of the home bases the force is really cataclysmal. Lava is

    forced up through the spreads created in the stones and shoots up through the Earth s crust.

    My Vent

    For my presentation I decided to demo a volcanic eruption. The first thing I did

    was go to the trade shop and purchase some clay. I so molded a vent form out of the clay.

    To do the eruption itself I mixed: dish rinsing detergent, ruddy nutrient dice, warm H2O,

    acetum, and baking sodium carbonate. This combination causes the lava to flux out of the top of the


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