Annotated bibliography about soccer Essay
Annotated bibliography about soccer
Culture is generally referred to as the people’s way of life, various groups of people practice different culture. As a way of life, culture therefore includes people’s day to day activities e.g. their mode of worship, dress code, language, feeding trends, and even sporting activities, among many other activities. However there are some activities that that are popular and therefore practiced by many people from all the parts of the world, these activities are therefore a popular culture among the people.
One such activity is soccer, a sport discipline that has its history going back to 2nd and 3rd centuries BC. Soccer has since undergone a series of transformations, and today it is by far the most prestigious and popular sport that is regularly played by over 240 million people from more than 200 countries and watched by billions of people in stadiums and on televisions (Gutten, Allen, 1993)
Soccer has undergone many transformations that have been occasioned by the need to improve the game in order to make it as lively and appealing as possible.
However, these transformations sometimes draws heated debates which end up brewing deep controversies among the stake holders of the international football federation association (FIFA) the body that governs worlds soccer. One such controversy arose when the international football association board (IFAB) a body under FIFA that is charged with the responsibility of formulating and constantly reviewing laws governing the game embarked on an experiment to introduce ways of deciding a winner of a match without requiring penalty shootouts incase of a draw within the normal time (Collet, mike 2004). The experiment involved ending a match in extra time early when the first goal in extra time was scored (golden goal) or when one team held a lead at the end of the first period of extra time (silver goal). The golden goal rule was practiced in world cup in 1998 and 2002, while the silver goal rule was practiced in Euro 2004. These new rules were aimed at increasing the flair in teams attacking ability in order to end the use of penalty kicks in deciding winners of a game, a practice that was seen to be based on more of luck than creativity in soccer. However, this was not the case as teams resorted to defending to avoid being punished by their opponents and hence killing the creativity in the game, again the beaten team usually went home with a lot of resentments on how the game ended. FIFA therefore did the best thing to abolish them as they were killing the spirit of competition and creativity in soccer.
This paper will therefore seek to give out a list of valid and reliable sources that will adequately lead to acquisition of worthwhile information about the above stated controversy in soccer. Each source will be followed by a short annotation that will give an insight on what to find in them, and how the information got will help in understanding the controversy more. The sources which were carefully selected and evaluated will help players, coaches, or sports analysts who may be interested in learning about ways of determining a winner in a game of soccer or even anybody interested in carrying out a research on soccer in general.
“Garrick F>C”, http://www.binternet.com/~a.drake/sheff/club/garrick.htm,
This website will give out a precise history about the first use of golden goal rule. In it a vivid description of how golden goal was used during the world second ever competitive soccer tournament, Cromwell cup. The site shows how a newly formed team scored the first golden goal in Brammal lane in Sheffield in 1898. This site therefore not only gives out the history of golden goal rules but goes a step further into giving out its dynamics, what it means, when it is used and other relevant details concerning golden goal rule. It these qualities that make this site a valid and reliable one to all interested in getting an insight on golden goal use.
2006 World cup drops golden goal – http://eur.i1/yimg.com/eur.yimg.com/i/eur/fifa/regen.pdf,
As the title of the site implies, this site talks of the use of golden goal rule in international tournaments and which teams benefited from the rule in the World cup 1998 and 2002 and Euro 2004. More information is found in this site on why FIFA gave in to recommendations by critics and as result abolished the controversial rule. A brief breakdown of the circumstances that led to its abolishment is also highlighted. It is therefore a nice source to soccer analysts and others alike whose professions demand that they keep a chronology of changes as they occur in soccer.
Talk football guide – http://www.talkfootball.co.uk/guides/football_skills_silver_goal_rule.html,
The history of silver goal rule as was introduced as an alternative to the much disputed golden goal rule is found in this website. How it entered the law books of soccer is explained in the site, with its first competitive tournaments being the 2003 UEFA cup and 2004 Euro cup. The information about silver goal is not known to many people compared to the golden rule and hence this site will be of great importance as it gives these details in deeper detail. This site is also nice for comparison between silver rule and other methods of deciding a winner in a game of soccer that has been advocated by FIFA e.g. the use of penalty kicks.
Time running out for silver goal rule, rediff.com – http://www.rediff.com/sports/2004/jul/02silver.htm.
After football thinkers came up with the silver goal rule which they claimed to be a fairer way to decide a winner, the reality dawned to them when Greece gained advantage in the dying minutes to edge out Czech in Euro 2004. This prompted FIFA to consider abolishing it as it was tantamount to favors to one team. This site offers all this information which will assist anybody who may be interested in knowing why silver goal rule was abolished, the pros and cons of this rule are highlighted in this site making it a suitable source.
Guttman, Allen, 1993, Available at;
Accessed on October 24, 2008
Collet, mike 2004, Available at;
Accessed on October 24, 2008