Discuss and Analyze the similarities and differences between the genocide committed in Rwanda and Yugoslavia in the 1990s. The Rwandan and Bosnian Genocides were more similar than different due to the fact that both were supported by the governing force at the time, and both were ignited due to past tensions between two separate ethnicities. The Rwandan and Bosnian Genocides were similar in the fact that both were supported by the ruling force at the time. The Rwandan Genocide, was organized by the newly created Hutu government, while the Bosnian Genocide, was executed by the Bosnian Serb Army with support from the Yugoslav Army.
In Rwanda, the government was formerly controlled by the minor (10%) Tutsi. The Tutsi were given this elevated position by the colonizing Germans, who viewed them as superior due to them having more “European” characteristics, i. e. lighter skin and taller build. When the Belgians to over Rwanda, the role was solidified with identity cards which labeled each person a Tutsi or a Hutu. When Belgium saw Rwanda as collateral when the people began to revolt, they switched the role of the two classes, leaving the Tutsi at the mercy of the Hutu.
The government was now controlled by the Hutu, who started the rebellion when their president was shot out of the sky. The ruling force of the country started a genocide, which would kill at least 500,000 people. Yugoslavia was originally a large state with differing ethnicities of people. Each group wanted a different form of government when the dictator, Marshall Tito died in 1980. The Croats wanted a non-Communist government, while the Serbs wanted a Communist government. When Croatia and Serbia announced their independence, the problems only grew.
When the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina declared independence, the wars began. The Serbian Army at the time was directly under control of the Serbian leader, Milosevic, Slobodan. On, order, the army began to take back Bosnia, committing horrors as they did. With backing from the Yugoslavia Army, the Serbian Army committed genocide via concentration camps . In both genocides, the ruling force of the country supported or organized the genocide of its country. The Hutu government massacred the Tutsi, and the Serbians massacred the Bosnian Muslims.
Another similarity between the two genocides was that both were started due to past hatreds between the two conflicting factions. The Rwandan Genocide was ignited due to hatred of Tutsi by the Hutu when the former were still in power. The Bosnian Genocide due to long-lasting hatred between the Serbs and Croats. When Rwanda was first colonized Tutsi were considered to be above the Hutu, but the balance of power was shifted between the two groups when Belgium abandoned the state due to revolution.
When the Tutsi were in power, the Hutu were always treated inferior to the Tutsi. The hatred of the Tutsi by the Hutu lasted long enough that the Hutu took revenge on the Tutsi in the form of genocide. In the Bosnian Genocide the animosity and the hatred began even earlier. It began in the Croatian War from 1991 to 1995. Serbian would occupy 30% of Croatian land. However the Croats in the displaced territory were abused by the Serbs, and when Croatia received full independence in 1992, the Croatians took revenge on the Serbs.
In the same year, the Bosnian War began between the Serbs and Croats over the newly declared independent Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina. In an act of revenge for the loss of the Croatian War and the aftermath from it, the Serbs took revenge in the form of genocide. The hatred between the Serbs and the Croats and the constant cycle of revenge between the two lead to the Bosnian Genocide. Both of the genocides were ignited by long lasting hatred between the lead to the Rwandan and Bosnian Genocides.
While both genocides were similar in many aspects, they were different in the number of states that were encompassed in each genocide. The Rwandan Genocide encompassed the state of Rwanda and the exiles from the state. As the genocide continued, and more and more Tutsi were slaughtered by the Hutu, the exiled Tutsi took action in creating the Rwanda Patriotic Front. The RPF stepped in, took control of Rwanda and ended the genocide. Only one state participated in this genocide. The Bosnian Genocide encompassed the states of Yugoslavia, Serbia, Croatia, The Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and NATO.
The genocide began to broil in the Croatian War. The genocide itself started in Bosnia when the Serbian Army committed genocide against the Bosnians and Croatians. To help end the war and the genocide, NATO bombed the Serbian Army. The Republic was split 39/61 between the Serbs and the Croats. Both of these genocides had their similarities, yet the striking differences cannot be ignored. The similarities in respect to the powering force behind both and the previous hatred between factions overshadow the number of participants in each genocide.