Global warming is the phenomenon that is hitherto and is the umber one cause of the drastic climate changes around the world. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (EPIC), the largest driver of global warming is the emission of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion, cement production and land use changes such as deforestation. These are all human influences that causes the change in the global water cycle, in reduction in snow and ice and changes in some climate extremes.
This paper reports on the causes and the impacts of climate change on tourism and its attractions and how it could be combated in the near future. Introduction Climate change is the change of average weather conditions and the time intervals of its occurrence. The emission of carbon dioxide, deforestation cause climate changes such as the rise of global sea levels, global temperature and the decreasing in Arctic sea ice.
All of these human activities has a huge impact upon the environment, the economy and the society. The Singapore Zoo has been chosen as a tourist attractions to discuss the sustainability of the site and the usefulness of selected indicators targeting climate change, leading to global warming and rising sea levels. Several indicators pertaining to the triple bottom nine has been made prior to the visit to the Singapore Zoo. These indicators will then help in the research of the climate change (Change, n. ). Background of The Singapore Zoo The Singapore Zoo, or formerly known as the Singapore Zoological Gardens was opened on the 27th of June 1973 after it was forced to close down in 1 905 when it was first built inside the Singapore Botanic Gardens in the early sass. When the zoo reopened in 1973, the zoo had about 300 animals and 70 species, and quickly gained its one millionth visitor in 1974. Now, the zoo sees about 1. 6 million visitors annually and is more than just place for family outings.
The zoo is also known to have programmers that are educational for both adults and children to promote awareness of the conservation of animal biodiversity. Currently, the zoo has over 2,800 animals and more than 300 species and has been rewarded with many achievements over the past 40 years ( History, n. D). 4 Literature Review 4. 1 Sustainable Tourism With reference from John Swarthmore (1999), he refers sustainable tourism to being a tourism that is not just about protecting the environment but it is also a concern with long-term economic viability and social injustice.
In terms of the research made at the Singapore Zoo, these are also some of the points covered when results were collected. Economic indicators, social indicators and environmental indicators were where the results derived from and then the results collected were used to reflect on the Zoo’s effort to keep the attraction sustainable. Their efforts also reflects on their contribution to the effects of global warming and climate change (Swarthmore, 1999). 4. Sustainable Indicators Indicator Issue being evaluated Academic source Other source Economic Profitability Exploitation to the visitors
Outlet Ticket Packages IRIS (Inland Revenue Authority Singapore) http://www. Iris. Gob. So/irksome/page. Asps? Id=7980 Contribution to the economy Tour guides from tour agencies that brings the tourists around Coaches & transport facilities Taxi companies Multiplier Effect Contribution to local jobs Locals vs. Foreign workers Observations can’t find the Wildlife Reserves Annual Report Environmental Conserving Biodiversity Number of species and animals in the zoo Organizations/charities that funds the zoo to help conserve endangered species Singapore zoo website Zookeepers at the Zoo http://www. RSI. Com. So/PDF/conserving-biodiversity. PDF Waste Management Where waste are being transported to? Water Management Animals waste vs. Human Waste Zookeepers at the zoo Socio/Cultural Visitor & Community Education Educational Trails Animal Awareness Signboards Interactive Images Brochures / Pamphlets http://education. Wars. Com. So/ Safety Precautions Emergency exits Interpretations Dos and Don’t Perspective over locals to tourists Ratings of the zoo Thoughts on the zoo Survey questions 4. Global Warming Wildlife animals today, are listed as vulnerable due to the effects of global arming. With the raising number of deforestation to build new infrastructures and greenhouse gases that are released into the atmosphere by factories, wildlife animals are one of the main population that are classified as the most affected. Polar bears for instance, are known for their great silent hunting skills, which they usually use to hunt for seals or fishes in the Arctic Circle.
These hunting methods usually comply of, waiting closely at the edge of the icy surface in the arctic for seals to come up for a breather, in which it will allow the polar bear to strike upon for its meal. However, due to global warming, Sea ice in the arctic are melting rapidly, as such, it deprives these species for food. Therefore polar bears are now forced to swim a longer distance in search of food, and mostly some drown due to exhaustion, or die due to malnutrition or even starvations. (World Wildlife Fund, n. ) To our observations, in the Frozen Tundra exhibit, we discovered physical signboards that educates the visitors of the importance of these wildlife animals towards our ecosystem and also explains to them on ways to decrease global warming as individuals on a daily basis. Animal presentation Taft, who also play a key importance in the zoo in educating visitors on animals, have also been helping to educate visitors on the risk that the wildlife animals are facing due to global warming during their commentary on the animals. Methodology Quantitative, qualitative methods used to evaluate the sustainability of Singapore Zoo 5. 1 Quantitative 5. 2 Qualitative 6 Reasons for indicators 7 Economic Indicators 7. 1 Profitability Findings Near the ticketing booth, there are marketing strategies incorporating the zoo’s popular cast in to attracting hungry and perspiring visitors such as the Ah Men’s assistant and Ninja cafe beverage stall. Passing the entry gate, there are many more marketing gimmicks such as souvenir stall, ice cream eatery, . (Refer to Appendix 1, figures 1. And 1. 2) Analysis Singapore zoo has been implementing clever marketing strategies in setting up local stalls to further draw the visitors to spend on their consumer products such as souvenirs, food and beverages and etc. Having such stalls leads to additional job opportunities, in other words it creates the multiplier effect. 7. Contribution to the economy Outside of Singapore zoo at the taxi stand, observations have been made that any tourist opted for the taxis as their transportation to leave the attraction even though the queues were long.
With a high demand for local taxis at the Singapore zoo, indirectly it is also contributing towards Singapore economic growth. Thus, by having a good response at the Singapore zoo, it will help to boost Singapore economy. 7. 3 Contribution to local jobs Observations have been made that most of the employees in the Singapore zoo are locals. Break them down into specific designation, zookeepers hired are of 100% locals. Having more local employee, it means that the changes for revenue leakage are Ewing minimized. 8 Environmental Indicators 8. Conserving Biodiversity Biodiversity is the variety of life forms and the measurement of biological diversity, in terms of species, genetic and ecosystem, on a planet. Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play. During January 2010, Wildlife Reserves Singapore (WARS) and Wildlife Conservation Society (WAS) had a signed agreement to provide public education and to boost biodiversity conservation efforts against climate change and global warming. Efforts includes the breeding of endangered species ND animal exchange programmers with other zoos around the world.
Upon reaching the entrance of the Singapore Zoo, visitors are being welcomed by visual elements represented by various animals such as ‘Ah Eng the Orangutan, Ninja the Polar Bear and many others including the Rhinoceros, which the zoo was raising awareness for, in the form of cartoon mascots and banners as well. Visual elements like Ah Eng restaurant, Ninja cafe gave visitors the impression of excitement and showcased the animals they kept in the zoo. Entering the zoo, the first thing that caught our attention is a booth promoting he awareness of the rhinoceros horn hunting.
They even showcases real horns and poops, extract from a Indonesian rhino that has passed away, to give tourist a sense of reality. (Refer to Appendix 1, figures 2. 1 and 2. 2) On the original standpoint, promoting and implementing biodiversity is a positive thing as it helps sustain the environment through conservation. Providing awareness to the public allows the community to initiate and play a part in the act of conserve. However, observations have been made in Singapore Zoo that various animals seem to be suffering inside their small enclosure. Animals from the cold climate are feeling discomfort from the tropical Singapore heat. Refer to Appendix 2, figure 2. 1). Surveys have also suggested that animals should be kept in their own natural habitats. Limitations Singapore Zoo in this case is one of the top leading facilities for captive management and breeding of endangered Asian primates and reptile species. However, cold climate animals such as the Polar Bear are still kept in the zoo even though Singapore faces the hot heat all year round. Thus, there are limitations in this case when it comes to the different species the zoo has. (Refer to Appendix 2, figures 2. And 2. 2 for WARS report on conserving biodiversity) 8. Waste Management Waste management is a system of collection and disposal of waste materials. It plays a crucial role in any infrastructure as it helps prevent dumpling and to keep the environment clean. This plays an important part to the zoo since it is the number 1 tourist attraction and Singapore is known for its “Clean & Green” image. Waste are carefully managed internally and water supplies are distributed evenly throughout the entire zoo. When trying to control the climate, temperature and the animal artificial enclosure, massive amount of water and electrical energy is required.
Without proper water and energy management, gallons of clean water and electrical energy will be wasted, contributing to global warming Operations within the Singapore Zoo requires huge amount of water and electric consumption, to maintain the upkeep of animal enclosures. Facilities and technology such as interactive platforms help with the experience of the visitors in the zoo. (Refer to Appendix 3, figure 3. 1) Animal enclosures were built in the way where it mimics the natural habitat of the animals. Thus a lot of energy is used to mimic the environment.
Take the enclosure of Ninja as an example, as an arctic breed, temperature were kept low and maintained consistent by air-conditions and huge pool of water were used for the Anus’s enclosure. Observations have been made that huge amount of water are required to hold the enclosure of certain animal types such as the hippopotamus and the polar bear, and popular tourist attraction in the park, The Animal Show (Refer to Appendix 3. Figure 3. 1 Just for the animal show alone, the stage is surrounded by a small drainage like pool for the show itself. Huge amount of water are being spilled into the filter drain while animals are performing.
There is also another facility in the zoo that contributes to the water consumption of the zoo – ‘Rainforest’s Kid World’, a water playground designed for kids to play in. Due to being a sensitive issue, the reliability of information regarding the water management of Singapore Zoo extracted from the employee remains questionable. Looking at WARS report on conserving resources (refer to Appendix 4, figures 4. 1 and 4. 2), it is shown that efforts towards sustainable environment such as water conservation, reducing plastic waste and optimizing energy consumption have been made by the zoo as much as possible.
Efforts can be en whilst research was made at the zoo. 8. Minimal Welfare Being an attraction that promotes wildlife conservation and costumers, Singapore Zoo have been known globally on their amazing efforts on animal welfare, one of which, is the new polar bear exhibit also known as Frozen Tundra. The Frozen Tundra exhibit accumulates a total size of 2. 5 basketball courts put together. It was established in mid-2013 for the only polar bear to be born in the tropics, in Singapore, and recognized around the world as Ninja.
Polar bears are known to live in the Arctic Circle, and can never adapt to the climate such as in Singapore. Thus, being a display animal at the Singapore Zoo may result to putting the life of such species of animal at stake. (Singapore Zoological Gardens, n. D) Observations were made and an interview was held in the zoo with one of Anus’s caretakers, who is in-charge of the well-being and the safety of the polar bear for the past 13 years. It was revealed that in order to keep the polar bear active on a daily basis, keepers are usually put through a challenge to keep the animal healthy with various means of enrichment’s exercises.
Challenges such as maintaining its daily dose of diet (supplements: Glutamine, Pallets and Cod oil) s well as its mean consumptions of meat are carefully considered. The caretaker also claims that they provide new enrichment’s for the animal so that it can drain out its energy just like how they do it in the wild. This also helps keep the animal active throughout the day and to keep its natural instincts alive. In the closure of the interview, the keeper also emphasized that they do not force or deprive the animal to do something that the animal refuses to do. 9 Social Indicators 9. Visitor and Community Education Other than being known as one of the best tourist attraction in Singapore, The Singapore Zoo is also known for its educational learning journeys which many schools in Singapore participate to bring their students for educational trails in the zoo. The Singapore also facilitates many outreach programmers such as campaigns all year round to promote awareness. Singapore Zoo is 26-hectare wide and the animals are able to move around freely in special viewing features such as elevated platforms to view giraffe exhibits, underwater galleries and even glass observatories to see animals like cheetahs.
On top of that, they have well-known walk-through exhibits that bring animals ND the visitors to direct encounters with the animals. Through well-designed and informed signage or displays, the Singapore Zoo allows the guest to learn, have a better and deeper understanding of the animals that are cohabitation there. In preserving Biodiversity, the Singapore Zoo has been involved in wildlife research programmers and even collaborates closely with the global community (Park Experience, 2014).
Based on the observations that were made, people would crowd around areas when and where it is the due time for a particular animal to be fed. While feeding he Rhinoceros, the zoo keeper would keep close interpersonal interactions with the visitors by giving on-going speeches to educate the visitors about the basic history and background of each particular animal. (Refer to Appendix 1, figures 1 to 3 for photo references) Along the pathways of the zoo, there were booths focusing on campaigns that the zoo was raising awareness for.
At that particular time, the zoo was raising awareness on the Rhinoceros through the campaign #troubleshooters. There were a different sections throughout the zoo to educate visitors on the extinction of the Rhinoceros and how the visitors can contribute to saving the Rhinoceros. Part of these observations also shows that the Singapore Zoo has been putting effort in creating awareness to the public on the protection of endangered species and also displaying signs to enhance the experiences and the educational journey of the visitors. 9. Safety Precautions Safety precautions are a primary factor that is needed, to act and prevent a situation before anything disastrous happens. If no safety precaution takes place, it will then be too late to act upon the matter. Moreover, it involves animals which are supposed to be in the wild but are kept in enclosed areas to be hoecakes. It is unpredictable to know when the animals might go berserk and actually escape and cause harm to the visitors or to the environment. Therefore, safety precaution is essential in The Singapore Zoo.
Besides the animals, the visitors have to play a part in protecting themselves to prevent injuries or damage to the environment Based on the observations, it has clearly shown in Appendix 5, figures 5. 10 to 5. 14 about some safety issues that the Singapore Zoo faced. There were no signs or instructions to inform the visitors of any escape routes in the situation of danger such as escape of an animal. As shown (Appendix 5, Figure 5. 10 to 5. 11), the Singapore Zoo has installed certain safety precautions such as electric wires around the animals enclosure.
From the findings of an interview from a Zoo Keeper, the electric wire supplies a voltage up to 9 volts. This is to give the animals a minimal paralysis shock to prevent the animals from escaping or leaving their designated confined area and also to be kept out of reach to the visitors. However, there were no indications to inform the visitors that these wires consist of voltage which might or might not injure the visitors. Even if there ere signage, the clarity of these safety aspects was hidden or absent (Appendix 5, Figure 5. 12 to 5. 4). There were minimal information and illustrations to state why certain things are placed at a particular place or even signage to caution visitors from pursuing further. The Singapore Zoo could have enhanced the signage to have a better interpretation on the purpose of not doing certain actions. It will better aid the understanding of the children. Analysis 9. 3 Perspective over locals to tourist Many observations were made at the Singapore Zoological Garden and the number of tourists to locals were one of the observations made.
The number of tourists outnumbered the locals on a Saturday morning and many of the locals seem to be at the zoo for leisure with their family. The zoo sees 1. 6 million visitors every year as indicated on their website but however the exact number could not be retrieved as some information were private and confidential. Apart from observations, several other information from both tourists and the locals were retrieved through surveys conducted in the zoo. Here are the questions that were being asked: Was the zoo your first choice out of the many attractions in Singapore?
How did you get here? Was it easy? What do you think of the diversity of wildlife the zoo has? What do you think about the exhibits here in the zoo? What do you think about the education factor in the exhibits? What do you think of the food & beverage options available in the zoo? What do you think can be improved? The answers given varies greatly between the tourists and the locals. Most importantly, the motivation to visit the zoo was also different. Most tourist visits the zoo because of the wildlife experience they cannot find in other country.
The mission and vision of the zoo is to inspire an appreciation of nature through exciting and meaningful wildlife experience. They added that Singapore allows better experience for them to get up close and personal with the animals unlike some other zoos who keep their animals caged. The locals on the other hand were at the zoo mainly for company bonding and family events. They shared that they’ve been to the zoo many other times before and that nothing much has changed since then (Experience, n. D). 9. 3 Customer Satisfaction The questions asked above also relates to the next point of the social indicator.