Historical Background – The Filipino Spirit reawakened when the three priests Gomez. Burgos and Zamora were guillotined without sufficient grounds of guilt. This was buttressed with the spirit of liberalism when the Philippines opened its doors to the universe trade and with the coming of broad leader in the individual of Governor Carlos Maria de la Torre. Propaganda Movement – This motion was spearheaded largely by the rational mid-class like Jose Rizal. Marcelo Del Pilar. Garciano Lopez Jaena. Antonio Luna. Mariono Ponce. Jose Ma.
Panganiban and Pedro Paterno. The aims of this motion were to seek reforms and alterations like the followers: 1. To acquire equal intervention for the Filipinos and the Spaniards under the jurisprudence. 2. To do the Philippines settlement of Spain. 3. To reconstruct Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes. 4. To Filipinize the parishes.
5. To give the Filipinos freedom of address. of the imperativeness. assembly and for damages of grudges. Dr. Jose P. Rizal – Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado Alonzo Y Realonda was born on June 19.
1961 at Calamba. Laguna. His first instructor was his female parent Teodora Alonzo. He studied at the Ateneo de Manila. started medical specialty at UST and finished at the Universidad Central of Madrid. He besides studied at the University of Berlin. Leipzig and Heidelberg. He died on December 30. 1896. His pen-name was Laong Laan and Dimasalang. His books and Hagiographas: 1. NOLI ME TANGERE – This was the novel that gave spirit to the propaganda motion and paved the manner to the revolution against Spain. The NOLI gave the Filipino literature the immortal characters Maria Clara. Juan Crisostomo Ibarra. Elias. Sisa. Pilosopong Tasio. Dona Victorina. Kapitana Maria. Basilio and Crispin. 2. EL FILIBUSTERISMO – This is the subsequence to the NOLI. While the NOLI exposed the immoralities in the society. the FILI exposed those in the authorities and in the church.
3. MI ULTIMO ADIOS ( My Last Farewell ) – This is the verse form by Rizal while he was incarcerated in at Fort Santiago and is one that can compare favourably with the best in the universe. 4. SOBRE LA INDOCIA DE LOS FILIPINOS ( On The Indolence of the Filipinos ) – An essay on the alleged Filipino Indolence and the rating on the ground on such allegations. 5. FILIPINAS DENTRO DE CIEN ANOS ( The Philippines within a Century ) – An essay foretelling the increasing influence of the US in the Philippines and the decreasing involvement of Europe here. 6. A LA JUVENTUD FILIPINA ( To the Filipino Youth ) — A verse form Rizal dedicated to the Filipino young person analyzing at UST 7. EL CONSEJO DE LOS DIOSES ( The Council of the Gods ) — An allegorical drama attesting esteem for the Cervantes. 8. JUNTO AL PASIG ( Beside the Pasig River ) — Written by Rizal when he was 14 old ages of age.
9. ME PIDEN VERSOS ( You Asked Me for Verses ) : 1882 and A LAS FLORES DE HEIDELBERG ( To the Flowers of Heidelberg ) — Two verse forms attesting Rizal’s unusual deepness of emotion. 10. NOTAS A LA OBRA SUCESOS DE LAS FILIPINAS FOR EL DR. ANTONIO DE MORGA ( Notes on Filipino Events by Dr. Antonio de Morga ) : 1889 11. P. JACINTO: MEMORIAS DE UN ESTUDIANTE DE MANILA ( P. Jacinto: Memoirs of a Student of Manila ) 1882. 12. DIARIO DE VIAJE DE NORTE AMERICA ( Diary of a Voyage to North America ) MARCELO H. DEL PILAR—Popularly known for his pen name of Plaridel. Pupdoh. Shrieking Dilat and Dolores Manapat. He started schooling at the school of Mr. Flores and so transferred to that of San Jose before UST to analyze Law. He is the laminitis of the Diariong Tagalog in 1882. He was assisted by Fr. Serrano Laktaw in printing a different Catechism and Passion Book wherein they made merriment of the priests. He died of TB in Spain. His last words were to for his married woman and kids stating them how sorry he was for he wasn’t able to offer them goodbye ; to state others about the destiny of our countrymen and to go on assisting the state.
His plants were: 1. PAGIBIG SA TINUBUANG LUPA: ( LOVE OF COUNTRY ) : Translated from the Spanish AMOR PATRIA of Rizal. published on August 20. 1882 in Diariong Tagalog. 2. KAIINGAT KAYO ( BE CAREFUL ) : A humourous and sarcastic excavation in reply to Fr. Jose Rodriguez in the novel NOLI ME TANGHERE of Rizal. 3. DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN ( PRAYERS AND JOKES: Similar to a catechism but sardonically done against the parish priests. It was because of this. del Pilar was called a “Filibuster” . Done in an admirable tone of invocation and first-class usage of Tagalog. 4. ANG CADAQUILAAN NG DIOS ( GOD’S GOODNESS ) : It was besides like a catechism sardonically aimed against the parish priests but besides contains a doctrine of the power and intelligence of God and an grasp for and love for nature.
5. SAGOT SA ESPANYA SA HIBIK NG PILIPINAS ( ANSWER TO SPAIN ON THE PLEA OF THE FILIPINOS ) : A verse form pleasing for alteration from Spain but that Spain is already old and weak to allow any assistance to the Philippines. 6. DUPLUHAN… DALIT. . MGA BUGTONG ( A POETICAL CONTEST IN NARRATIVE SEQUENCE. PSALMS. RIDDLES ) : A digest of verse forms on the subjugation by the priests in the Philippines. 7. LA SOBERANIA EN PILIPINAS ( SOVEREIGNTY IN THE PHILIPPINES ) : This shows the unfairnesss of the mendicants to the Pilipinos. 8. POR TELEFONO ( BY TELEPHONE )
9. PASIONG DAPAT IPAG-ALAB NG PUSO NG TAONG BABASA ( PASSION THAT SHOULD AROUSE THE HEARTS OF THE READERS. ) Graciano Lopez Jaena ( 1856 – 1896 ) – He was born on December 18. 1856. His pen name is Diego Laura. The most noteworthy hero and mastermind of the Phillipines. Pride of Jaro. Iloilo. Known speechmaker and author in the Phillipines. He wrote 100 addresss published by Remigio Garcia. He left the Philippines in 1887 in order to get away penalty from his enemies and arrived at Valencia. He moved to Barcelona where he established the first magazine LA SOLIDARIDAD. He returned to the Philippines to inquire for contributions to go on a new authorities called EL LATIGO NACIONAL or PAMBANSANG LATIGO. He died in a charity infirmary in Barcelona on January 20. 1896 11 months before his best friend Rizal was shot. The Works of Graciano Lopez Jaena: 1. ANG FRAY BOTOD ( Friar Botod ) – one of his plants in Jaro. Iloilo in 1876. six old ages after the Cavite Revolt assailing the mendicants in the Philippines.
2. LA HIJA DEL FRAIL ( The Child of the Friar ) and EVERYTHING IS HAMBUG ( Everything is mere how ) – explains the calamity of get marrieding Spaniards. 3. SA MGA PILIPINO… . 1891… . – a address which aimed to better the status of the Filipinos to go free and progressive. 4. TALUMPATING PAGUNITA KAY KOLUMBUS ( An Oration to Commemorate Columbus ) – a address he delivered in Madrid on the 39th day of remembrance of the find of America. 5. EN HONOR DEL PRESIDENTE MORAYTA DE LA ASSOCIACION HISPANO FILIPINO 1884 – here he praised Gen. Morayta for his equal intervention of the Filipinos. 6. EN HONOR DE LOS ARTISTAS LUNA Y RESURRECCION HIDALGO 1884 – sincere look of congratulations for the pictures of Hidalgo on the status of the Filipinos under Spaniards. 7. AMOR A ESPANA O A LAS JOVENES DE MALOLOS ( Love for Spain or To the Youth of Malolos ) – the subject is about how misss were taught Spanish in schools and whose instructors were the governors- general of the topographic point.
8. EL BANDOLERISMO EN PILIPINAS ( Banditry in the Philippines ) – he refuted the being of banditry in the Philippines and of how there should be Torahs on robbery and other reforms. 9. HONOR EN PILIPINAS ( Honor in the Philippines ) – the exultant expounding of Luna. Resurrecion and Pardo de Tavera of the thesis that intellect or knowledge gives award to the Philippines. 10. PAG-ALIS SA BUWIS SA PILIPINAS ( Abolition of Taxes in the Philippines ) 11. INSTITUCION NG PILIPINAS ( Sufferings of the Philippines ) – refers here to the incorrect direction of instruction in the Philippines 1887. ANTONIO LUNA – was a druggist who was banished by the Spaniards to Spain. He joined the Propaganda Movement and contributed his Hagiographas to LA SOLIDARIDAD. His pen name was TAGAILOG. He died at the age of 33 in June 1899. He was put to decease by the soldiers of Aguinaldo.
Some of his plants were: NOCHE BUENA ( Christmas Eve ) : It pictured true Filipino life. SE DEVIERTEN ( How They Diverted Themselves ) : A excavation at a dance of the Spaniards where the people were really crowded. LA TERTULIA FILIPINA ( A Filipino Conference or Feast ) : Depicts a Filipino usage which he believed was much better than Spanish. POR MADRID ( For Madrid ) : A denunciation of Spaniards who claim that the Philippines is a settlement of Spain but who think of Filipinos as aliens when it comes to roll uping revenue enhancements for casts. LA CASA DE HUESPEDES ( The Landlady’s House ) : Depicts a landlady who looks for lodgers non for money but in order to acquire a hubby for her kid. MARIANO PONCE ( March 23. 1863 – May 23. 1918 ) – He was born in Baliwag. Bulacan where he completed his primary instruction. He subsequently enrolled at the Colegio de San Jose de Letran and took up medical specialty at the University of Santo Tomas.
In 1881. Ponce became an active member of the Propaganda Movement. working shoulder to shoulder with outstanding Filipino nationalists like Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. del Pilar. He was. in fact. a close friend of Jose Rizal. He helped Graciano Lopez Jaena found La Solidaridad. In 1896. he was arrested and imprisoned in Barcelona on intuition of being someway involved in the rebellion. He became an editor-in-chief. biographer. and research worker of the Propaganda Movement and used Tikbalang. Kalipulako. and Naning as pennames. He besides wrote about how the Filipinos were oppressed by the aliens and of the jobs of his countrymen. Among his Hagiographas were:
1. MGA ALAMAT NG BULACAN ( Legend of Bulacan ) – contains fables. and folklores of his native town.2. PAGPUGOT KAY LONGINOS ( The Beheading of Longinus ) – play shown at the place of Malolos. Bulacan. The subject of the drama was about the bitterness of the Filipinos int the custodies of the Spaniards.3. SOBRE FILIPINOS ( About the Filipinos )
4. ANG MGA PILIPINO SA INDO-TSINA ( The Filipinos in Indo-China ) PEDRO PATERNO ( February 17. 1857 – April 26. 1911 ) – Pedro Alejandro Paterno y de Vera Ignacio. was a Filipino politician who has been called “the greatest deserter in Philippine history” . He finished Bachiller en Artes in Ateneo de Manila and continued his surveies at University of Salamanca. Here he took classs Philosophy and Theology. so he moved to the Central University of Madrid where he besides graduated expertness in jurisprudence in 1880. Paterno was a bookman. dramatic. research worker and novelist of the Propaganda Movement.
He besides joined the Confraternity of Masons and the Asociacion Hispano-Pilipino in order to foster the purposes of the Movement. He was the first Filipino author who escaped censoring of the imperativeness during the last twenty-four hours of the Spanish colonisation. His Hagiographas: 1. NINAY – the first novel authored by a native Filipino. This novel marked the beginning of the waking up of national consciousness among the Ilustrados. 2. A MI MADRE ( To My Mother ) – shows the importance of a female parent. 3. SAMPAGUITA Y POESIAS VARIAS ( Sampaguitas and Varied Poems ) – a aggregation of his verse forms.
This book of poesy had five consecutive editions. The book contains verse forms those are spiritual. filial. and about love. The lead verse form was La Cruz. intending “The Cross” . JOSE MA PANGANIBAN ( February 1. 1863 – August 19. 1890 ) – Jose Ma. Panganiban Y Enverga was a Bicolano propagandist. linguist and litterateur. He is one of the chief author and subscriber for La Solidaridad. composing under the pen names “Jormapa” and “J. M. P. ” . He was besides known for holding a photographic head. He was a member of figure motions for the state such as the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina and La Solidaridad because he believed in establishing reforms in the Philippines. Bing one of the authors of the La Solidaridad. he called the attending of the Spaniards on the freedom of the imperativeness and criticized the educational system in the Philippines. Some of his Hagiographas were: 1. ANG LUPANG TINUBUAN ( My Native Land )
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