Population Problem Research Paper The Population Essay

Population Problem Essay, Research Paper

The Population Problem

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Two hundred old ages ago, Thomas Malthus, in An Essay on the Principle of

Population, reached the decision that the figure of people in the universe will

addition exponentially, while the ability to feed these people will merely

addition arithmetically ( 21 ) . Current grounds shows that this theory may non

be far from the truth. For illustration, between 1950 and 1984, the entire sum of

grain produced more than doubled, much more than the addition in population in

those 34 old ages.

More late though, these statistics have become reversed.

From 1950 to 1984, the sum of grain increased at 3 per centum yearly. Yet,

from 1984 to 1993, grain production had grown at hardly 1 per centum per twelvemonth, a

lessening in grain production per individual of 12 per centum ( Brown 31 ) . Besides

beef uping to Malthus & # 8217 ; statement is the theory that the universe population will

addition to over 10 billion by 2050, two times what it was in 1990 ( Bongaarts

36 ) . Demographers predict that 2.8 billion people were added to the universe

population between 1950 and 1990, an norm of 70,000 a twelvemonth.

Between 1990

and 2030, it is estimated that another 3.6 billion will be added, an norm of

90,000 a twelvemonth ( Brown 31 ) . Furthermore, in the eighteenth century, the universe population

growing was 0.34 % ; it increased to 0.54 % in the nineteenth century and in the first

half of the twentieth century to 0.84 % ( Weiskel 40 ) . Neo-Malthusians base their

statements on the instructions of Thomas Malthus. Of the Neo-Malthusians, Garrett

Hardin is one of the most outstanding and controversial. Hardin & # 8217 ; s essays discuss

the job of overpopulation and the effects it will hold on the hereafter. In

Lifeboat Ethical motives, he concludes that uninterrupted additions in population will hold

black results. Neo-Malthusian statements come under much examination by those

who believe that the population detonation is merely a myth. Those who hold these

beliefs province that the grounds Neo-Malthusians usage to warrant their positions is

far from conclusive. Critics hold that the Neo-Malthusian call for

autocratic control is much excessively extremist. Therefore, these critics belittle the

theories of Neo-Malthusians on the footing that population is non a job.

However extremist Hardin & # 8217 ; s theories may be, current grounds shows that he may non

be excessively far off the grade. It is barely arguable that the population has

increased in the past few decennaries, for current statistics show that this

really is the instance. Equally telling, is the fact that huge sums of land

are being transformed into more living infinite. More people means more waste,

more pollution, and more development. With this taken into consideration, it

seems that Hardin & # 8217 ; s instructions should no longer fall on deaf ears. When

discoursing the issue of population, it is of import to observe that it is one of

the most controversial issues confronting the universe today. Population growing, like

many other environmental issues, has two sides. One side will claim that the

population detonation is merely a myth, while the other side will reason that the

population detonation is world. Because of this, statistics refering this

capable vary widely. But, in order to carry, it is necessary to take one

side or the other. Therefore, statistics may be questioned as to their cogency,

even though the statistics come from believable beginnings.

Lifeboat Ethical motives

The United States is the most thickly settled state in the universe, behind lone China

and India. Unlike China and India though, the United States is the fastest

turning industrialised state. The United States & # 8217 ; population expands so rapidly

because of the instability between migration and in-migration, and births and

deceases. For illustration, in 1992, 4.1 million babes were born. Weighing this

statistic against the figure of deceases and the figure of people who entered and

left the state, the consequence was that the United States obtained 2.8 million

more people than it had gotten rid of ( Douglis 12 ) . Population additions place

great strain on the American society and more peculiarly it causes enormous

devastation to the natural environment. For illustration, more than half of the

wetlands in the United States are gone, and of all of the original wood screen,

90 per centum has been destroyed. This depletion has caused the close extinction of

over 796 single workss and animate beings. At least portion of the twelvemonth, the air that

over 100 million people breathe is excessively soiled to run into federal criterions. And

eventually, about 15 million people are capable to contaminated H2O supplies

( Douglis 12 ) . It is really likely that entire devastation of the environment can

take topographic point and likely will if something is non done to control the population

growing. When discoursing Hardin & # 8217 ; s essays it is necessary to face the

job of in-migration. Immigration is responsible for about 40 per centum

of the population growing in the United States ( Douglis 12 ) . The United States

now accepts more immigrants than all other developed states combined

( Morganthau 22 ) . It is estimated that about one million immigrants from

all over the universe are doing the United States their new place each twelvemonth ( Mandel

32 ) . This estimation does non include illegal in-migration, which makes this entire

even greater ( McKenna 336 ) . It is obvious that immigrants have a much better

life in the United States than in their old places. Immigrants come to the

United States to profit from the United States & # 8217 ; economic system, and return to their

original places with more money. Take for illustration a quote signifier a Malayan

immigrant working illicitly in the United States: ? If you take one dollar back

to Malaysia, it is dual the value. You work here to gain U.S. dollars so you

can greatly better your populating criterion in Malaysia. ? ( Mandel 32 )

While immigrants benefit themselves by coming to the United States, they leave

natural born Americans viing for occupations. By 2050, it is estimated that the

population of the United States will be near to 383 million. Of this,

about 139 million, or 36 per centum, will be immigrants and their kids.

This will do Americans of European descent, which in 1960 were an 89 per centum

bulk, a minority of less than 50 per centum ( Brimelow 42 ) . Immigration airss

great menaces to the national economic system, and costs taxpayers 1000000s of dollars

every twelvemonth. Studies show that post-1970 immigrants, legal and illegal, used

$ 50.8 billion of authorities services in 1992. Subtracting the $ 20.2 billion

they paid in revenue enhancements, the difference, which American taxpayers had to do up, was

$ 30.6 billion. These figures, averaged out, history for $ 1,585 for every

immigrant. Over the following 10 old ages, it is estimated that an extra $ 50

billion in American revenue enhancement money will travel toward back uping immigrants ( Thomas 19 ) .

Harmonizing to Garret Hardin & # 8217 ; s thought of Lifeboat Ethics, go oning to add to the

population of the United States will make many adversities. In order to convey

the population within a sensible figure, Hardin suggests population control.

Like other Neo-Malthusians, he states that this can merely be accomplished under

autocratic authorities. Under autocratic control, twosomes would no longer

be able to have private benefits from reproduction, while they pass the costs

of their birthrate on to society ( Chen 88 ) . He claims that single rights & # 8211 ;

peculiarly generative rights & # 8211 ; are excessively wide. He argues that population

control can non be achieved with birth control entirely. Birth control merely gives

the individual the pick of when to hold kids and how many to hold ( Chen 90 ) .

Therefore, in order to achieve a stable population, the right to reproduce freely can

no longer be allowed. Hardin begins his statement by observing that hapless states

hold a GNP of about $ 200 per twelvemonth, while rich states have a GNP of

about $ 3,000 a twelvemonth. Thus, there are two lifeboats: one full of every bit rich

people, the other disastrously overcrowded with hapless people. Because of the

overcrowding in the hapless lifeboats, some people are forced into the H2O,

trusting finally to be admitted onto a rich lifeboat where they can profit

from the? dainties? on board. This is where the cardinal job of? the moralss

of a lifeboat? becomes a primary issue. What should the riders on the rich

lifeboat do ( Hardin 223 ) ? First, Hardin notes that the lifeboat has a limited

transporting capacity, which he designates at 60. Fifty people are already aboard

the lifeboat, go forthing room for 10 more. He besides notes that the 10 empty infinites

should be left empty in order to continue the safety factor of the boat.

Assuming there are 100 swimmers waiting to be taken on board, what happens following

( Hardin 223 ) ? Hardin suggests three solutions. First of which is to let all

100 people to board the lifeboat. This would convey the entire riders of the

lifeboat to 150. Because the boat merely has a capacity of 60, the safety factor

is destroyed, and the boat becomes overcrowded. Finally the lifeboat sinks

and everyone drowns. In Hardin & # 8217 ; s words, ? complete justness, complete calamity?

( Hardin 224 ) . The 2nd solution is to let merely 10 more people on the boat,

get rid ofing the safety factor, but maintaining the boat from going excessively overcrowded.

The job with this solution though is which swimmers to allow in, and what to

state to the other 90 left stranded in the H2O ( Hardin 224 ) . The concluding solution

is to let no 1 in the boat, therefore greatly increasing the opportunities of endurance

for the 50 riders already on board. This solution, to many of the

riders, would be incorrect, for they would experience guilty about their good fortune.

Hardin offers a simple response: Get out and give up your place to person else.

Finally, if all of the guilt ridden people relinquish their seats, the boat

would be guilt free and the moralss of the lifeboat would once more be restored

( Hardin 224 ) . Hardin following argues the issue of reproduction. He notes that

populations of hapless states dual every 35 old ages, while the populations of rich

states dual every 87 old ages. To set it in Hardin & # 8217 ; s perspective, see the

United States a lifeboat. At the clip Hardin wrote his essay, the population of

the United States was 210 million and the mean rate of addition was 0.8 % per

twelvemonth, that is duplicating in figure every 87 old ages ( Hardin 225 ) . Even though the

populations of rich states are outnumbered by the populations of hapless states

by two to one, consider, for illustration, that there are an equal figure of people

on the exterior of the lifeboat as there are on the lifeboat ( 210 million ) . The

people outside of the lifeboat addition at a rate of 3.3 % per twelvemonth. Therefore,

in 21 old ages this population would be doubled ( Hardin 225 ) . If the 210 million

swimmers were allowed onto the lifeboat ( the United States ) , the initial ratio

of? Americans? to? Non-Americans? would be one to one. But, 87 old ages subsequently, the

population of? Americans? would hold doubled to 420 million, while the? Non-

Americans? ( duplicating every 21 old ages ) would now hold increased to about 3.5

billion. If this were the instance, each? American? would hold more than 8 other

people to portion with ( Hardin 225 ) . Immigration causes more jobs than those

discussed by Hardin. It causes societal clash, and the diminution of English-

talking Americans ( Morganthau 22 ) . As more and more immigrants hapless into

American metropoliss, they jointly will experience no demand to larn the English

linguistic communication. If one metropolis becomes a bulk of immigrants instead than a bulk

of natural born Americans, tenseness is the consequence. This tenseness will ensue in

social segregation, which will eventually take to political segregation ( James 340 ) .

There are many statements that focus on the benefits of in-migration. Arguments

that conclude that in-migration creates occupations, promotes a diverse civilization, and

even statements that in-migration may bring forth the following Einstein. These statements,

that the United States should non shut its boundary lines, come chiefly from those

people who claim that the United States is a runing pot. If the United States

continues to populate by the words inscribed on the Statue of Liberty, it is

destined to make more bad than good, non merely socially and politically, but

besides environmentally. Arguments for in-migration tend to lose the primary job

that in-migration causes: the environmental job. Immigration means more

people. More people give rise to the demand for more living infinite which in bend

leads to devastation of the environment. Even though in-migration may be

beneficial in some ways, the United States must protect its national individuality,

and even more significantly, it must protect what land it has left. Failure to

near the doors to immigrants will continually increase environmental, economic,

and social jobs in America. Without proper statute law, these jobs

will ne’er be solved. Although America is the land of chances, the

environment must non be taken for granted. For if it is, catastrophe is inevitable.

Decision

The Book of Genesis tells the narrative of creative activity of adult male. God said to adult male, ? be

fruitful and increase in Numberss ; make full the Earth and subdue it. ? Prior to the

19th century, it was believed that God would supply for those who came

into the universe ( Day 101 ) . But, in 1798, this position was shaken by Thomas Malthus & # 8217 ;

An Essay on the Principle of Population, in which he concluded that while

population additions geometrically, agricultural production merely increases

arithmetically. Therefore, finally, nutrient production will non be able to maintain up

with an increasing figure of people. The inquiry is, which theory can be

justified? Those who say the we ever have room for more people fall into the

class who feel that the Bible justifies increases in population. What these

people fail to understand is that when more people are added, the criterion of

life lessenings. These people who say that populating infinite is near space may

be right in their beliefs. The inquiry is, which is more desirable: the

maximal figure of people at the lowest criterion of life & # 8211 ; or a smaller figure

of people at a comfy criterion of life ( Hardin 58 ) ? In order to foster

represent how increasing population decreases the criterion of life,

consideration should be given to a survey done by the National Institute of

Mental Health. The survey was done to demo the negative effects of

overpopulation ( Calhoun 6 ) . This survey shows what the universe has to look frontward

to if Garrett Hardin and Thomas Malthus are right. Four male and four female

mice were placed in an eight pes square coop. The eight mice were non capable

to jobs they may hold faced in the outside universe. In two old ages the eight

mice turned in to 2,200 mice. During this clip, the effects of overcrowding had

become relevant, as non one newborn mouse had survived in the two twelvemonth proving

period. Finally, after two old ages and three months, the concluding mouse ( a female )

died ( Calhoun 6 ) . During the experiment, assorted abnormalcies were considered

related to the overcrowding. Once the transporting capacity of the coop was reached

( 620 ) , unusual things started to happen. Aggressiveness and cannibalism overcame

some of the mice. Sexual activities became perverted. Some mice become

overly active, while others became? inactive blobs of living substance? ( Calhoun

6 ) . One of the experimenters stated the deductions of the survey. He noted

that the mice were capable to a perfect existence, free from disease, conditions,

etc. The mice progressed and took advantage of their ideal home ground, but merely

until they ran out of room. The abnormalcies of the mice became so prevailing

that even after the mouse population returned to its original carrying capacity

( 620 ) , there was nil that could be done to change their behaviour. Before all

of the mice died some were taken out and placed in a new environment, left to

freely reproduce once more. This resulted in failure though, as all of the

offspring shortly died. In decision, the survey showed that the state of affairs of the

mouse population would turn worse until the animate beings destroyed their full universe

( Calhoun 6 ) . If this experiment would keep true for the human race, it is clip

( possibly even past clip ) to do some alterations. Either manner, the Earth is non to be

taken for granted. No longer can natural resources be used as if there is an

infinite supply. Even if there is an infinite supply ( and one may ne’er cognize )

sustainability remains to be the best manner to wholly guarantee that natural

resources are used in the most effectual mode. But if natural resources are

non infinite the hereafter of human endurance is in hazard.

b5c

Bongaarts, John. ? Can the Turning Population Feed Itself? ? Scientific American,

March 1994, pp. 36-43.

Brimelow, Peter, and Joseph E. Fallon. ? Controling our Demographic Destiny. ?

National Review, 21 February 1994, p. 42.

Brown, Lester R. ? The Earth is Runing Out of Room. ? USA Today Magazine,

January 1995, pp. 30-32.

Calhoun, John B. ? Not by Bread Alone: Overcrowding in Mice. ? Man and the

Environment. Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown Company Publishers, 1971.

Chen, Lincoln C. ? A New Modest Proposal. ? Issues in Science and Technology,

November 1993, pp. 88-92.

Day, Henry C. The New Morality: A Candid Criticism. London: Heath Cranton

Limited, 1924.

Douglis, Carole, and Gaylord Nelson. ? Images of Home. ? Wilderness, Fall 1993,

pp. 10-23.

Hardin, Garrett. Stalking the Wild Taboo. Los Altos, California: William

Kaufmann, Inc. , 1978.

Hardin, Garrett. The Limits of Altruism: An Ecologist & # 8217 ; s View of Survival.

London: Indiana University Press, 1977.

James, Daniel. ? Close the Boundary lines to all Newcomers. ? Taking Sides: Clashing

Positions on Controversial Political Issues. Ed. George Mckenna and Stanley

Feingold. 9th erectile dysfunction. Guilford, CT: Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. , 1995.

Malthus, Thomas Robert. An Essay on the Principle of Population. Ed. Phillip

Appleman. New York: W.W. Norton & A ; Company, Inc. , 1976.

Mandel, Michael J. , and Christopher Farrell. ? The Price of Open Arms. ?

Business Week, 21 June 1993, pp. 32-35.

Morganthau, Tom. ? America: Still a Melting Pot? ? Newsweek, 9 August 1993, pp.

16-23.

Thomas, Rich, and Andrew Murr. ? The Economic Cost of Immigration. ? Newsweek, 9

August 1993, pp. 18-19.

Weiskel, Timothy C. ? Can Humanity Survive Unrestricted Population Growth? ? USA

Today Magazine, January 1995, pp. 38-41.

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