Rizal lived in exile in faraway Dapitan, a remote town in Mindanao which was under the missionary jurisdiction of the Jesuits, from 1892 to 1896. This four – year interregnum in his life was tediously unexciting, but was abundantly fruitful with varied achievements. Beginning of Exile in Dapitan Steamer Cebu – brought Rizal to Dapitan carried a letter from Father Pablo Pastells, Superior of the Jesuits Society in the Philippines, to Father Antonio Obach, Jesuits parish priest of Dapitan.
The letter informed that Rizal could live at the parish convent but with following condition which he refused. Captain Carnicero – the commandant where Rizal live. He admired the kind, generous Spanish Captain. As evidence of his esteem, he wrote a poem, A Don Ricardo Carnicero, on August 26, 1892 on the occasion of the captain’s birthday. Wins in Manila Lottery September 21, 1892, the sleepy town of Dapitan burst in hectic excitement. The mail boat Butuan, brought no Spanish officials but the happy tidings that the Lottery Tickets No. 9736 jointly owned by Captain Carnicero, Dr.
Rizal and Francisco Equilior (Spanish Resident of Dipolog, a neighboring town of Dapitan) won the second prize of P20,000 in the government owned Manila Lottery. Lottery – the only vice of Rizal according to Wenceslao E. Retana. Rizal – Pastells Debate on Religion Father Pastell sent Rizal a book by Sarada, with the advice that the latter (Rizal) should desist from his majaderas (foolishness) in viewing religion from the prism of individual judgment and self-esteem. Rizal revealed his anti – Catholic ideas which he had acquired in Europe and embitterment at his persecution by the bad friars.
Father Pastells tried his best to win back Rizal to the fold of Catholicism. Rizal could not be convinced by Pastells arguments so that he lived in Dapitan beyond the pale of his Mother Church. In spite of their religious differences, Rizal and Pastells remained good friends. His Catholicism, however was the Catholicism that inquires and enlightens, the “Catholicism of Renan and Teilhard de Chardin”. Rizal Challenges a Frenchman to a Duel Mr. Juan Lardet, – businessman. This man purchased many logs from the land of Rizal. It so happen that some of the logs were poor of quality.
Antonio Miranda – a Dapitan merchant and friend of Rizal, expressed Lardet disgust with the business deal. Miranda – indiscreetly forwarded Lardet’s letter to Rizal which led him to flared up his anger and challenge Lardet to a duel. March 30, 1893 – Lardet wrote Rizal for apology and the good relationship between them restored. Rizal and Father Sanchez Father Francisco de Paula Sanchez – Rizal’ favorite teacher at the Ateneo de Manila and the only Spanish priest to defend Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere in public. He was send to win back Rizal fold of catolicism. Rizal could not be convinced by his former beloved teacher.
Rizal gave Sanchez a manuscript entitled Estudios sobre la lengua tagala (Studies on the Tagalog Language) a Tagalog grammar which Rizal wrote and which he dedicated to his beloved former teacher. Idyllic Life in Dapitan 1. He had built his house by the seashore of Talisay. 2. He also had another house for his school boys 3. He has a hospital for his patient. August, 1893 – members of his family took turns in visiting him in order to assuage his loneliness in the isolated outpost of Spanish power in the Moroland. December 19, 1893 – Rizal wrote to Blumentritt describing his life in Dapitan.
Rizal’s Encounter with the Friar’s Spy November 3, 1893 – a spy and posing as a relative, secretly visited Rizal at his house on night He introduced himself Pablo Mercado as a friend and relative, showing a photo of Rizal and a pair of buttons with the initial “P. M” as evidence of his kinship. He offered his service as a confidential courier of Rizal’s letters and writings for the patriots in Manila. Captain Juan Sitges – (succeeded Captain Carnicero on May 4, 1893 as commandant of Dapitan) he ordered the arrest of “Pablo Mercado”. Anastacio Adriatico – instructed to investigate P.
M. Florencio Namanan – the real name of “Pablo Mercado” a native of Cagayan de Misamis and was hired by the Recollect friars to a secret mission in Dapitan. Governor General Blanco – received the transcript of the investigation and kept the documents as highly confidential. December 20, 1893 – Rizal wrote to Manuel T. Hidalgo telling about the spy against him. A Physician in Dapitan Rizal practice medicine in Dapitan where many of his patients were poor so he gave them free medicine. He became interested in local medicine and in the use of medicinal plants.
August 1893 – In his mother and sister (Maria) arrived in Dapitan and lived with him for one year and a half and operated his mother’s eyes. Rizal’s fame as a physician, particularly as an eye specialist spread far and wide. He had many patients who came from different parts of the Philippines. Don Ignacio Tumarong, a rich Filipino patient paid him P3, 000. Englishman also paid him P500. Don Florenicio Azacarraga, a rich hacendero of Aklan paid him a cargo of sugar. Water System in Dapitan He applied his knowledge of engineering by constructing a system of waterworks in order to furnish clean water to the town people.
Without any aid of the government, he succeeded in giving a good water system to Dapitan. Mr. H. F. Cameron – an American engineer who praised Rizal’s engineering. Community Projects for Dapitan 1. Constructing the town’s first water system. 2. Draining the marshes in order to get rid of the mosquito carrier of malaria. 3. Lighting system of the town consisted of coconut oil lamps placed in the dark streets of Dapitan. 4. The beautification of Dapitan. Rizal as Teacher 1893 – gave him the opportunity to put into practice his educational ideas and he established a school until the end of exile in July,1896.
From 3 pupils and later become 21. Instead of charging tuition fees, he made them work in his garden, fields, and construction project in the community. Formal classes were conducted between 2:00 p. m. and 4:00 p. m. Rizal taught his boys reading, writing, languages (Spanish & English), geography, history, mathematics (arithmetic & geometry), industrial works, nature study, morals, and gymnastics. He also trained them how to collect specimens of plants and animals, to love work and to “behave like men”. Hymn to Talisay – his favorite rendezvous with his boys was under the talisay tree, after which the place was named.
In honor of Talisay, he wrote a poem entitled “Himno A Talisay” for his pupils to sing. Contribution to Science 1. A rich collection of concology which consisted of 346 shells representing 203 species. 2. Rare specimen which named in his honor. Draco rizali (a flying dragon), Apogonia rizali (a small beetle) and Rhacaphorus rizali (a rare frog). Linguistic Studies He wrote a Tagalog grammar, made a comparative study of the Bisayan and Malayan languages, and studied the Bisayan (Cebuano) and Subanum languages. April 5, 1896 – he wrote to Blumentritt to let him know that he can speak Bisayan quite.
That time Rizal could rank the “world’s greatest linguists” for he knew 22 languages, as follows: Tagalog, Ilokano, Bisayan, Subnun, Spanish, Latin, Greek, English, French, German, Arabic, Malay, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Dutch, Catalan, Italian, Japanese, Chinese, Portuguese, Swedish and Russian. Artistic Works in Dapitan He contributed his painting skills to the Sisters of Charity who where preparing the Sanctuary of the Holy Virgin in their private chapel. He made sketches of persons and things that attracted him in Dapitan.
The Mother’s Revenge – a statue representing the mother-dog killing the crocodile by way of avenging her lost puppy. 1A bust of Father Guerrico, 2a statue of the girl called “The Dapitan Girl”, 3a wood carving of Josephine Bracken (his wife) and 4a bust of St. Paul which he gave to Father Pastells. Rizal as Farmer Rizal bought 16 hectares of land in Talisay and he introduces modern methods of agriculture. He imported agricultural machinery from the United States. Rizal dreamed of establishing an agricultural colony which did not materialize because he could not get the support of the government.
Rizal as Businessman Rizal engaged in a partnership business with Ramon Carreon a Dapitan merchant. (Fishing, copra and hemp industries) January 19, 1893 – he wrote a letter to Hidalgo and he expresses his plan to improve the fishing industry of Dapitan. Hemp industry – the most profitable business venture of Rizal May 14, 1893 – Rizal formed a business partnership with Ramon Carreon in lime manufacturing. Cooperative Association of Dapitan Farmers – organized by Rizal on January 1, 1895 to break the Chinese monopoly on business in Dapitan. Rizal’s Inventive Ability Sulpukan” – a cigarette lighter made of wood which is a gift to Blumentritt. He also invented a machine for making bricks that could manufacture about 6,000 bricks daily. “My Retreat” He wrote this beautiful poem in response to the request of his mother (February, 1895) “Mi Retiro” (My Retreat) – this poem is about his serene life as an exile in Dapitan and send it to his mother on October 22, 1895. It is also acclaimed by literary critics as one of the best ever penned by Rizal. Rizal and Josephine Bracken August 28, 1893 – the death of Leonora Rivera which left a poignant void in his heart.
Josephine Bracken – an Irish girl of sweet eighteen, she was born in Hong Kong on October 3,1876 of Irish parents – James Bracken (a corporal n the British Garrison) and Elizabeth Jane MacBride (died after child birth). Mr. George Taufer – adopted Josephine, but later he became blind. Manuela Orlac – a Filipina companion who accompanied Josephine and Mr. Taufer to Rizal in Dapitan. Julio Llorente – he give an introduction card for Mr. Taufer to present to Rizal. Rizal and Josephine fell in love with each other at first sight.
After a month they agreed to marry but Father Obach refused to marry them without the permission from the Bishop of Cebu. Since no priest would marry them, they just held hands together and married themselves before the eyes of God. They live happily in Dapitan. At one time Rizal wrote a poem for Josephine. “Josephine, Josephine” Early part in 1896, they were expecting a baby. Josephine gave a premature birth to an eight-month old baby boy named “Francisco”(the hero’s father), unfortunately he lived only for three hours and he was buried n Dapitan. Rizal at the Katipunan
July 7, 1892 – the birth of “Katipunan” the secret revolutionary society by Andres Bonifacio “Great Plebian”. Bitukang Manok – a little river were a secret meeting of the Katipunan was held on May 2, 1896. Dr. Pio Valenzuela – inform Rizal of the plan of Katipunan to launch a revolution for freedom’s sake. June 15, 1896 he left Manila on board of the steamer “Venus”. Raymundo Mata – a blind man he brought to camouflage his real mission. ___Two reason why Rizal objected to Bonifacio’s audacious project: * The people are not ready for a revolution. * Arms and funds must first be collected before raising the cry of revolution.
Volunteers as Military Doctor in Cuba December 17, 1895 – Rizal wrote to General Ramon Blanco offering his services as military doctor in Cuba. July 1, 1896 – a letter arrived in Dapitan, notifying him of the acceptance of his offer. The Song of the Traveler “El Canto de Viajero” (The Song of the traveler) – a heart-warming poem because of his joyous thought of resuming his travels. Adios, Dapitan July 31, 1896 – Rizal four years exile came to an end. He embarks on board the steamer “Espa?a”. Funeral March – a farewell music played by the town brass band for Rizal.