The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheaval and conflict during the early 1900’s. Reason’s that has been largely accepted for these conflicts are * Nationalistic sentiments under Serbia. * Lack of will to find political compromise. * Deep economic and political crisis. National Sentiments: The first Yugoslavia was a modern nation (1918) with the concept that it was a single state for all Slavic people. However, it was under rule of Serbian rulers who began to fan the flames of nationalism.
Radical nationalist initiated a program “The Serbianization of Yugoslavia”, they feared the multi-ethnic state Yugoslavia was. They viewed Yugoslavia as an extension to Serbia. In response to the Serb nationalistic drive, other republics in Yugoslavia began to exercise their constitutional right of self-termination, declaring their sovereignty. During the period of warfare the Yugoslavian conservatives and officials in government equated patriotism and one’s own pride of identity to gain support of the ruling party. Those who opposed where often brutally silenced and marginalized.
Lack of will to find political compromise:Former Yugoslavia was populated by Bosnia, Serbian and Croatian people. It was a country that needed to have great tolerance for cultural and civilizational differences and for the country with such a complex state it needed an equally complex government. It dangerously lacked all this. Yugoslavia had two major dividing views; the Serbs identified with Yugoslavia as an enlarged Serbia and the Croats and Slovenes accepted Yugoslavia as a political multinational solution but they rejected Yugoslavia as their identity.
It was a two state concept- Federal (Croats and Slovenes) and Central (Serbs). After the rule of communism in Yugoslavia the question of state organisation re opened. The conflict between liberal and imperial ideas were constant and created a great divided. The two desires, the Serbs to rule Yugoslavia and the other nations to be autonomous we not considered to be agreed upon, thus creating lasting, deep rooted conflict and separation. If the proposal for confederation had been adopted the inevitable separation could have possibly been obtained peacefully.
Deep economic and political crisis: A massive percentage of war volunteers were under 25, they were dubbed the generation of “crisis kids” , they felt that by their personal participation in the “national project” they were contributing to an overall cause. There was harsh economic hardship in the 90’s in Yugoslavia and this made it easy to exploit and manipulate these romantic male soldiers who had little opportunity elsewhere. Violence was seen as a means for political change.
It was commonly believed that Croatia was a rich republic and by attempted to become sovereign they were trying to escape helping the poorer countries. Serbian regimes where seen as the republic who cared for the poorer state during this impoverished period. Yugoslavian conservative where another factor in the collapse, they played as actors and used their control over military and informational resources to construct images of threat and inflict violent warfare onto multi ethnic communities. The army was for internal protection against external threats, however , it comprised of 70% Serbs. Yugoslavia deteriorated from within.