Nowadays an increasing interest is attached to the different types of narratives. The analysis of the types of author’s narrative in the works of modern English novelists allows us to penetrate into the inner world of the author and to define the language structures that are used to create the text itself. The types of the author’s narratives have not yet been exhausted in linguistic studies. The urgency of the author’s narrative has been accentuated in the publications of well-known researchers. Among them we should mention V.
The aim of our research is to study the types of the author’s narrative which greatly influence the structure of novels. The concrete tasks of the investigation are the following: 1. to analyze the types of the author’s narratives in various works of modern fiction; 2. to find examples of modern literary process and to analyze their features; 3. to define the specific use of language units in different types of novels; The object of the investigation is the author’s point of view in the course of creating the text of the novel and different types of the author’s narrative in it.
The material of our investigation are the selected novels of John Anthony Burgess Wilson (27), Harper Lee (20), Jerome David Salinger (23), John Robert Fowles (28), Winston Groom (30) and the comparison of these novels with an example of the traditional author’s narrative in the novels of John Galsworthy (29). The urgency of the research emanates from the necessity of further investigations of the types of the author’s narratives in modern English prose, as the contemporary literary process is greatly influenced by the development and the use of various types of the author’s narrative.
The scientific novelty follows from the absence of special studies of the types of the author’s narratives in the framework of modern English prose. In the course of the investigation the following methods of research have been used: biographical method, comparative-historical method and narrative method. Chapter I Modern English literature. The most renowned novelists of the period The most important part of the culture of any nation is literature which opens the world of tradition, national mentality and life for us.
The English literature belongs to the most powerful ones in the world. Speaking about the literature of Great Britain, we could not but mention such famous writers, poets as William Shakespeare, Jonathan Swift, George Gordon Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Walter Scott, Charles Dickens, Oscar Wilde, Bernard Shaw and many others. It is hard to imagine the world of literature without these names, without the heroes of our favorite novels, without those good thoughts and feelings that seize upon us while reading the novels, plays and poems of English writers.
According to Anikin: “The English literature is one of the richest literatures of the world which gave us such names as Chaucer, Shakespeare, Defoe, Byron, Dickens, Shaw and many other novelists, playwrights, poets. Their works, which reflect the peculiarities of their time and convey the thoughts and feelings of their contemporaries, are all associated with a particular period. But heritages of national cultures do not lose their importance for the following ages and generations as well. The ideological and artistic value of the works of great writers is enormous”. 1, 4) The English literature has had a long history of development, inherent to any national literature. It reached its peak in the XIX century, during the formation and development of Romanticism. Such representatives of the national literature as Wordsworth and Coleridge proclaimed the new principles of literary art among the firsts. Romanticism was gradually replaced by realism which was spread in the second half of the XIX century. The representatives of this literary trend (Dickens, Thackeray) tried to depict a detailed picture of an individual and society, explored the connection between different phenomena.
In the late XIX century the works of romanticism reappeared. It was due to the writers’ tragic perception of life that led them to seek for emotional balance in the abstract dimension without social problems of the environment. These writers (Collins, Stevenson, Conan Doyle) were called “neoromantics” The new XX century was marked by new trends in the development of English literature. After the end of the Victorian era, which prohibited an open display of physiological scenes, in England writers of a new trend became popular. They were called naturalists (S.
Maugham) and they continued the development of realism (A. Cronin). Between the two World Wars British and Irish writers made significant contributions to the literary process. R. Fox, C. Caldwell, R. Casey, were active participants of political, national and literary movements. Speaking about the English literature of the XX century, we are bound to mention the famous novelist, playwright, master of social novels, J. Galsworthy, whose trilogy “The Forsyte Saga” is known all around the world. G. Wells, D. Joyce, R. Aldington and many other writers can be added to the list of English writers.
They tell about themselves a lot in their works as well. K. A Shahova writes: “While considering the literature of England for the last decade of the twentieth century, it is safe to say that although in its development there were periods of stagnation, when only a few works were outstanding. But the English literature, of course, had outstanding talents. It created very notable works that have played an important role in the development of not only their country’s but Europe’s and the world’s culture”(14, 5). So, we can say that the literature of the United Kingdom is extremely rich and various.
Its role should not be neglected in the culture of mankind. The American literature has a significant role in English literature. T. N Denisova described this period as follows: “The novels of the USA in the 70-80’s are very colorful. Mostly mass culture prevails. The literature itself is either strongly psychological or political”. (6, 340) If the novels of American writers are dominated by political themes, their British colleagues are “fighting” against mass culture. Anikin expressed such thoughts about the period: “Realistic novel is developing in the fight against the literature of masscult” and “pop-art”, against sensational bestsellers and adventure books, against utopian books, anti-communist detectives and Freudian psychological writings”. (1, 304) After such a characteristic of the English literature in the XX-XI century, we would like to analyze the creative activity of such novelists, as John Anthony Burgess Wilson, Harper Lee, Jerome David Salinger, John Robert Fowles, Winston Groom. An extremely talented writer of modern prose is Nelle Harper Lee. She has written only one novel – “To Kill a Mockingbird” (1960).
By the end of the 1950’s, Lee worked as an official at an airline. Later she decided to devote her life to literature. As a result, Nelle quitted her job and began to work on her novel. In 1957, she gave the manuscript of the novel to the publishing house Lipinkot. There the editor said that the book consisted of a series of short stories and advised her to rewrite the text. In 1960 the novel was published. It immediately became very popular among readers. In a year the writer was awarded the Pulitzer prize. In 1999 the book was ranked as “The best novel of the century”.
Nelle spoke about the success of her novel in the following way: “I have never expected any success of the Mockingbird. I hoped that the critics would “kill” it quickly and mercifully, but at the same time I thought that somebody may like it so as to inspire confidence in me. I hoped for a little, but got everything and, to some extent, it was as frightening as a quick merciful death” (25). “To Kill a Mockingbird” – is an almost autobiographical novel based on the childhood memories of the writer. The narrator is a mischievous girl, who lives in a provincial town during the times of the Great Depression.
While growing up she is gradually becoming aware of the darker aspects of human nature. She and her brother, Jim, are involved in the world of racial prejudice, deception, narrow-mindedness, ignorance and hatred. This novel is undoubtedly one of the masterpieces of world literature. The purpose of this book is to remind the world about American reality. Yet Lee showed that in her country not only bad Americans with racial prejudices were living, but also those Americans who were on the side of justice and fairness, who were not condemning people of other races.
This novel forces the reader to think about such problems as racism and its social origins. After the success of “To Kill a Mockingbird” Lee again started working on new novels, but each time she was not satisfied with the result and refused to publish them. As a result, except that single novel she published only a few essays. Another prominent novelist of this period is Anthony Burgess. He was an English writer and literary critic (researched literature, especially the works of Shakespeare and Joyce), he was also interested in literary translation and journalism. K. A.
Shahova expressed such opinion about the work of this writer: “No game of fantasy, composition, effective eloquence and unexpected comic motivations can conceal the attitude of A. Burgess to history … ” (14, 54) His first novel was published in 1949. Ten years later a brain tumor was discovered and according to the doctor’s opinion, he had to live no more than a year. After the medical diagnosis was not justified, Burgess turned away from the depiction of modern life and wrote several novels with elements of anti-utopia. It allowed him to lay stress on the problem of choosing between good and evil.
This problem is most urgently raised in the “A Clockwork Orange” (1962), a novel, which was popular after the film adaptation of S. Kubrick (1971). With continuing the tradition of futuristic literature and experimenting with language Anthony Burgess created a novel which is recognized by modern literature. The smart, rude, charismatic anti-hero, Alex, is the leader of a street gang. He preaches violence as the highest art of life, for him it is a kind of pleasure. He becomes one of the victims of violence through the newest state program. A Clockwork Orange” is a literary paradox of the XX century. Can we save the world from evil by depriving someone of the freedom to make decisions and turn him into a mechanism? This question is set by the author in the novel. Burgess points to the indissoluble connection of violence and totalitarianism. Burgess wrote novels not only under his own name but under different pseudonyms, which his wife offered him. Once he wrote a review for the newspaper Yorkshire Post about his own novel “Inside Mr. Enderby” (1963). He also sent letters to the Daily Mail under the pen name “Muhammad Ali”.
The novel “A Clockwork Orange” presents a bleak picture of society terrorized by street gangs and incompetently governed by hypocritical and self-serving officials. Through Alex’s story, Burgess explores themes of free will, violence, and state-controlled behavior in a blackly humorous and subtly satirical style. A major theme of “A Clockwork Orange” is the ability of the individual to make moral choices. Burgess presents a society that experiments with radical behavior modification techniques on criminals to eliminate socially unwanted ehavior; his argument is that it is morally and ethically preferable for the state to allow its citizens the choice between good and evil than it is for the state to destroy the capacity for choice. A side effect of Alex’s conditioning is that, because classical music accompanied the films he watched during the Ludovico Treatment, he can no longer listen to Beethoven without getting sick. While this is a negligible by-product from the point of view of the government, it illustrates Burgess’s point that destroying the ability to choose evil also destroys the capacity to choose good.
The novel also juxtaposes the violence committed by Alex and his gang members with the violence committed by the state in the name of justice and security. We should pay attention to the work of the prominent writer, Jerome David Salinger as well. He was an American writer, a classic of the American Literature in the XX century. His best known work is “The catcher in the rye” (1951). It should be noted that this work is the only novel written by the author. The book was banned in several countries and in some states of the USA. The reason for that was the depressiveness and vulgar vocabulary of the novel.
But nowadays in many American schools it is included into the list of recommended literature. According to J. V. Pokalchyk: “Jerome David Salinger’s novel “The catcher in the rye” (1951) immediately became one of the favorite books of the American youth. It quickly gained popularity in many foreign countries as well. To this book a lot of critical researches have been devoted”. (12, 97) The interpretation of this novel’s main idea is strongly controversial. Some critics describe the main character, Holden Caulfield, as a very negative one, others think that he is purely positive. The problems of the book are very serious and deep.
As J. V. Pokalchyk noted: “… The problem of Salinger’s novel is much deeper than an individual problem of a young man like Holden Caulfield. It is the problem of social and moral life of the American society. It is no accident that Holden rebels against “the highest” ideals of modern America – success in society and secure life. Not accidentally turns Holden to his childhood. He denies “adulthood” and sees in it the moral degradation of man”. Salinger sharply accentuates the portrayal of Holden with a symbolic structure of language, motif, episode, and character; and when the complex patterns are discovered, the effect is o concentrate our scrutiny on a masterpiece that moves effortlessly on the colloquial surface and at the same time uncovers a psychological drama of unrelenting terror and final beauty. We could not but mention the work of Winston Groom, the author of the famous novel “Forrest Gump” (1986). In 1985 the author began working on his novel. A year later he managed to publish it. But until 1994, when the novel was first filmed, the book did not have great success. This masterpiece of the English literature is described by J. Tkachyk: “…
Winston Groom and his Forrest Gump, which looks at the American society of the 60-90’s through the eyes of an idiot, determines the degree of humanity and rationality in our life”. (13, 187). We can state that Groom’s novel about a mooncalf is original. Although William Faulkner in 1929, wrote a novel where the narrator was a mentally ill man, he did not raise in it such problems as Groom in his “Forrest Gump”. In the book the author strongly criticizes the defects of contemporary American society through the image of Forrest. J. Tkachyk expressed his opinion about the protagonist as follows: “…
Forrest shows his own point of view on the American society from which you can feel the attitude of this society and culture to an idiot”. (13, 181-182). John Robert Fowles is one of those few writers who emerged in England in the 1960’s. Fowles published six novels, written in completely different style, a collection of novels and short stories “The ebony tower” (1974), a collection of “Poems” (1973), a number of excellent translations from French, screenplays, literary-critical articles, many other books and articles which do not belong to belles lettres style.
The first published novel of Fowles, “The Collector” (1963), brought him success and deprived of having to earn his living as a teacher. He was awarded a prestigious literary prize for his book “The French Lieutenant’s Woman” (1969). According to many critics it is the best work of Fowles. It is both an experimental and historical novel that takes the reader to a perfectly recreated Victorian world, but not allows them to forget about what they are – human beings who are separated from that epoch by a great historical distance. About this extraordinary novel K.
A. Shahova wrote: “Fowles pointed out that referring to the events of a hundred years ago, to the 60’s of the XIX century, he experimented. His aim was to create not only an epic but an artistic distance between the depicted and the contemporary lives” (14, 380). In the novel the one of the main characters, Sarah, scorned by the Victorian Society from which she had escaped, ceased to bother the identity-seeking Charles. Although Fowles went so far as to provide for this as an ending, he did not realistically think that it would come to be.
Fowles did not see himself so much writing a novel as he did relating a series of events that he was witnessing. He used his role as an author and as a character, and posed questions and evoked decisions, to present his twentieth-century views on the era of Queen Victoria. Charles, the protagonist, was his medium for this presentation. Another well-known English writer is J. R. R. Tolkien. He was one of the greatest writers and scholars of the twentieth century. Generations of readers have been enthralled by his most famous creations: “The Hobbit”, “The Lord of the Rings” and “The Silmarillion”.
Scholars, meanwhile, have debated about the true greatness of these popular novels. Many others found the books – and in particular “The Lord of the Rings” – to be masterpieces. “The Lord of the Rings” was, in many ways, the culmination of a life’s work for Tolkien. When the first volume of the “trilogy”, “The Fellowship of the Ring” was released in 1954, Tolkien had already spent the last 15 years working on the book. In conclusion we can state that the literary life of England and America of the last century was especially lively and full of energy, new ideas that raised socially important questions.
Modern prose is extremely varied and ambiguous. The creative achievements of these writers belong to the most important part of world literature. Novels of the above mentioned novelists are not only interesting from the standpoint of our research, but they describe problems with which our society is concerned nowadays. The literature, written at modern time appeared when traditional religious and moral values have all been vanished. The literature of that time explains the bases of human behavior.
At the same time, writers have conveyed their feelings about senselessness, hopelessness, and despair in life. Chapter II Types of the author’s narrative in modern English prose In literary criticism fiction is defined as rhythmically not organized speech; a literary work or many of them written in prose. The creator of any literary work is the author. The author in literature is an artist who expresses himself in his work. He organizes it, expresses an emotional and semantic unity. V. A.
Kyharenko writes about the role of the author in fiction in the following way: “A work of creative prose is never homogeneous as to the form and essence of the information it carries. Both very much depend on the viewpoint of the addresser, as the author and his personages may offer different angles of perception of the same object. Naturally, it is the author who organizes this effect of polyphony, but we, the readers, while reading the text, identify various views with various personages, not attributing them directly to the writer.
The latter’s views and emotions are most explicitly expressed in the author’s speech (or the author’s narrative)”. (21, 72) In any literary text the words of the author and that of the characters may be differentiated. The last of them can be presented in the form of a dialogue or in the form of inner speech. Therefore, in order to understand the novel in a whole we have to gain a deeper knowledge of the types of the author’s narrative. The classification of the types and means of expression in a piece of artistic writing has been worked out by V. A.
Kyharenko in the “The interpretation of the text”. It gives us the following classification: “An artistic text is heterogeneous by its nature, in it four types of expression are distinguished – the author’s narrative (AN), dialogical speech (DS), internal speech (IS), entrusted speech (ES) and represented speech (RS)”. (9, 133) The story may be told in such a way that we are given the impression of witnessing the events as they happen – we see the actions and hear the conversations, but we never enter directly into the minds of any of the characters.
In this case the reader is guided by the observer-author. The observer-author merely records the speech and actions of the characters without analyzing them. Examples of traditional storytelling are the novels of John Galsworthy. ; if this is a novel, it cannot be a novel in the modern sense of the word” (28) This type of expression can be called reasoning, and in it the author expresses his point of view. Fowles used such lexical markers as this, these, that. With these means the writer refers to past events, situations. According to V. A.
Kyharenko: “The leading role in shaping the concept of a novel is played by the author’s evaluation of objects, events, that make up its artistic reality. The evaluating element is always present in language because while examining objects of the surrounding reality, we express our attitude to them and evaluate them” (9, 134). Here we should mention the novel of J. R. R. Tolkien. This novel presented in the traditional author’s narrative. But attention should be drawn to the content of the book. Tolkien in his novel creates out of the void a complete and fully realized world.
He weaves his spell around us, suspends all disbelief, and gives us our own modern-day adventure and discovery quest. In many ways it is escapism from real life. J. R. R. Tolkien’s writing has fascinated readers and scholars throughout this age. His styles were not nearly as popular as some of those which come far before him. Celtic and Britonnic tales include awed their audiences and likewise included elements of romance, warriors, and magical settings. Histories and legends from this period in fact influence many of Tolkien’s modern plots and twists.
For us the most interesting feature of the novel is that the narration was about a fictitious world, a world which has never existed: “Boromir strode up and down, speaking ever more loudly: Almost he seemed to have forgotten Frodo, while his talk dwelt on walls and weapons, and the mustering of men; and he drew plans for great alliances and glorious victories to be; and he cast down Mordor, and became himself a mighty king, benevolent and wise. Suddenly he stopped and waved his arms. “And they tell us to throw it away! ‘ he cried. `I do not say destroy it.
That might be well, if reason could show any hope of doing so. It does not. The only plan that is proposed to us is that a halfling should walk blindly into Mordor and offer the Enemy every chance of recapturing it for himself. Folly! ” or “Frodo then drew the elf-blade from its sheath. To his dismay the edges gleamed dimly in the night. `Orcs! ‘ he said. `Not very near, and yet too near, it seems’. `I feared as much,’ said Aragorn. `But maybe they are not on this side of the River. The light of Sting is faint, and it may point to no more than spies of Mordor roaming on the slopes of Amon Lhaw.
I have never heard before of Orcs upon Amon Hen. Yet who were drawing near to the grey hill-country of the Emyn Muil, the southern march of Wilderland”. (26) We should not confuse the author’s narrative with the cases of entrusted narration, when the writer of the narration refuses to tell the story. This entrusted narrator is both a witness and a participant of the events. He tells the story through the prism of his own feelings and beliefs. The phenomena of entrusted narration appeared in literature a long time ago. The writers of the nineteenth century also turned to this means of narration.
About the entrusted narration Kyharenko wrote in the following way: “In contemporary prose, in an effort to make his writing more plausible, to impress the reader with the effect of authenticity of the described events, the writer entrusts some fictitious character (who might also participate in the narrated events) with the task of storytelling. The writer himself thus hides behind the figure of the narrator, presents all the events of the story from the latter’s viewpoint and only sporadically emerges in the narrative with his own considerations, which may reinforce or contradict those expressed by the narrator…
The structure of the entrusted narrative is much more complicated than that of the author’s narrative proper, because instead of one commanding, organizing image of the author, we have the hierarchy places himself in the position of the main character and tells of things that only the main character saw and felt. When a minor character, who participates in the actions, narrates the story, the events are described through the perception of his character. The author places himself in the position of a minor character and gives this character’s version of the events and personages.
When the author shifts the responsibility of telling the story to the first person narrator, he actually provides his reader with two versions of one and the same story: 1) the explicitly expressed subjective version (the narrator’s version) 2) the implied objective version, which the skilled reader is expected to derive. The narrator in these novels may be an adult, a child, a teenager, a mentally ill person. There are several advantages of this method: 1) The first person narrative is a very effective means of revealing the personality of the character who narrates.
The narrator tells what he thinks and feels, and the reader easily understands his motives, his nature. 2) This narrative method increases the credibility of the story. The narrator’s statements are backed by the narrator’s presence in the described events. 3) The story told by the first person narrator is more confiding. The narrator often uses the informal tone, addresses the reader directly and establishes a personal relationship with him. The reader is treated by the first person narrator trustfully. Here we should mention the novel of Harper Lee “To Kill a Mockingbird”. Before analyzing the novel we would like to quote V.
Pokalchyk: “It is notable that in the novels where the writer creates the main character as a teenager or a child who is not familiar with all aspects of life the paints are much softer, there is much singleness of the character’s soul, though the attitude towards “adult” is life still predominantly negative”. (12, 97) Unlike the main character of Salinger, who perfectly revealed the inner world of a teenager from a bourgeois family, the Finch brother and sister are children with a completely healthy psyche. They lost their mother in their early childhood, nevertheless their father is bringing them up perfectly well.
They are the embodiments of perfect American citizens. Scout and her brother, Jem, learn the principles of racial justice and social tolerance from their father, whose just and compassionate acts include an unpopular defense of a black man falsely accused of raping a white girl. They also develop tolerance and the strength to follow their convictions in their acquaintance and eventual friendship with a recluse who has been demonized by the community. Criticism of its tendency to sermonize has been matched by praise of its insight and stylistic effectiveness. It became a memorable film in 1962 and was filmed again in 1997.
From the point of view of our research, this novel is very interesting because the story is told on behalf of the eight years old daughter of Finch. It is evident that the book has great artistic value. Scout tells her story in her childish, undeveloped language. In the analysis of the novel this stylistic feature plays an essential role: “Jem says I was. He read in a book where I was a bullfinch instead of a Finch. Jem says my name’s really Jean Louise Bullfinch, that I got swapped when I was born and I’m really a – (30); “He never drink a drop in his life – name, yes he did.
He said he drank some one time and didn’t like it” (20, 62) We understand that the story teller is an underage from such grammatical and stylistic mistakes as: “… Simon made a pile practicing medicine, but in this pursuit he was unhappy lest he be tempted into doing what he knew … ” (20, 14); “It was customary for the men in the family to remain on Simon’s homestead … ” (20, 14); “They persisted in pleading Not Guilty to first-degree murder … ” (20, 15); “He played the character parts formerly thrust upon me … (20, 19); “But there came a day when Atticus told us he’d wear us out if we made any noise in the yard … ” (20, 23); “He made me start off on the wrong foot”. (20, 36) The book has memoirs character, as its protagonist recollects her childhood. For example: “I said if he wanted to take a broad view of the thing? It really began with Andrew Jackson. If General Jackson hadn’t run the Creeks up the creek, Simon Finch would never have paddled up the Alabama, and where would we be if he hadn’t”. (20, 13) or: “… it occurred to me that I would be starting to school in a week. I never looked forward more to anything in my life.
Hours of wintertime had found me in the treehouse, looking over at the schoolyard, spying on multitudes of children through a two-power telescope Jem had given me, learning their names, following Jem’s red jacket through wriggling circles of blind man’s buff” (20, 27). It is complicated to tell a story on behalf of a little girl about the business of adults, social problems of America. But Harper Lee has the necessary skill of a writer to deal with this problem successfully. We would like to use another example, where a story is told from the first person narrative, on behalf of a teenager.
The novel is Salinger’s “The Catcher in the Rye”. J. Pokalchyk wrote about this novel: “The main character of Salinger’s novel is Holden Caulfield, a sixteen years old teenager. He tells about a few days from his life and about America. The story is presented from the point of view of a sensitive teenager” (12, 98). In the novel Holden is depicted as an unhappy, disappointed and very lonely human being. He even does not want to study because he sees in society only hypocrisy. Caulfield is very close to suicide – he does not know how and why to live. He decides rather to remain “immature” than to conform to this society.
Now we would like to analyze the speech of Holden in details: a) the regular use of such parasitic words and phrases as all (how my parents were occupied and all, it was December and all, right in the pocket and all, they’re nice and all), stuff (goddam checkups and stuff, tickets and stuff), crap (starches and crap, and all that crap), sort of (you felt sort of sorry for her, she was sort of deaf, I was beginning to sort of hate him); b) grammatical mistakes: the use of personal forms of verbs after on account of, that requires a gerund (on account of four subject, on account of it was Sunday); the use of irregular verbs (I’d woke him up, she’s been laying here all night); not proper use of personal pronouns (DB took Phoebe and I, told Allie and I, I woke he and his wife up, kept telling Stradlater and I); violation of syntactic rules (I don’t like that type language, except
For example, in Theodore Dreiser’s “Genius” in the 1910’s the character used a vulgarism: “A woman- figure came to close quarters, though he was not in any over sober state himself, recognised Corley’s breath redolent of rotten cornjuice. Lord John Corley, some called him, and his genealogy came about in this wise. He was the eldest son of Inspector Corley of the G Division, lately deceased, who had married a certain Katherine Brophy, the daughter of a Louth farmer. His grandfather, Patrick Michael Corley, of New Ross, had married the widow of a publican there whose maiden name had been Katherine (also) Talbot”; or “Poor fellow! Quite a boy. Terrible. Really terrible.
What dreams would he have, not seeing? Life a dream for him. Where is the justice being born that way? All those women and children excursion beanfeast burned and drowned in New York. Holocaust. Karma they call that transmigration for sins you did in a past life the reincarnation met him pike-hoses. Dear, dear, dear. Pity of course: but somehow you can’t cotton on to them someway”. The technique of “stream of consciousness” is difficult both for the reader and for the author. (31) The fourth and last type of narration is represented speech. This type is a mixture of the elements of direct and indirect speech. Kyharenko wrote about it as follows: “An example f represented speech is the following sentence: “And Daniel said, Yes, he knew he had a uncle down home who died like that” (J. Baldwin “If Beale Street Could Talk”). Here the words of Daniel are fully preserved: a not normative form of the article is possible only in direct response to a question. All traits of direct speech are present, except two things: 1) the words of the character do not contradict to the rule of tenses, 2) the one who speaks is marked by the pronoun of the 3rd person singular (compare directly the language: “And Daniel said: Yes, I know … ”). But the author’s aim has been achieved”. (9, 174) Dialogical speech is mostly used in belles-lettres style. Dialogical speech is used to depict a character through his speech.
Writers who create inner monologues in literary works focus on the emotional and psychological processes that are taking place in the minds of one or more characters. Important character traits are revealed through an exploration of what is going on in the mind. Represented speech is the form of utterance which conveys the actual words of the speaker through the mouth of the writer but retains the peculiarities of the speaker’s mode of expression By various examples we have proved that modern writers of the English literature extensively use the different types of narratives. Conclusions In this research we have made an attempt to illustrate the different types of the author’s narrative, specifically in the novels of modern English and American writers.
Narrative point of view in the creative writing of fiction describes the narrator’s position in relation to the story being told. We have tried to show some peculiarities of their functioning. The narrative mode encompasses not only who tells the story, but also how the story is described or expressed The narrator may be a fictive person devised by the author as a stand-alone entity, or may even be a character. The narrator is considered participant if an actual character in the story, and nonparticipant if only an implied character, or a sort of omniscient or semi-omniscient being who does not take part in the story but only relates it to the audience.
Ability to use the different points of view is one measure of a person’s writing skill. After having analyzed the different types of the author’s narrative in modern English novels we can clearly identify the features of all of them. We have got acquainted with the author’s techniques of creating a complete picture of a novel. We have got more information about how the author helps the reader to become more familiar with the characters and events within the framework of the novel. While writing our research we have tried to show that the expression of an act of communication is an integral component of literature and is fully determined by the author’s skill.