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US History Early Colonization

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    Below is a quick review guide for the upcoming unit test. This review guide is intended to provide an overview of general topics that may be on the test. However, all items below may not appear on your version of the test. At the same time, certain items on the test may not be directly mentioned the review guide. It is intended for review only, the class readings and materials also need to be consulted.

    Introduction to History PowerPoint

    Be able to define Primary and Secondary sources, as well as understand the strengths and weaknesses of each. Primary Sources- a fundamental or original document relating to a particular subject, experiment, time period or event. First hand record of an event. Strengths: perspective, graphic and can tell us about the social and economic conditions.

    • Purpose- author’s intent
    • Value- answers the question, info provided
    • Limitations- what is does not address

    Be able to define the 5 Themes of Geography (Location, Place, Region, Human/ Environmental Interaction, and Movement) apply them to colonial history. Location- where a place is Latitude and Longitude. It describes the location of a Spanish colony, San Miguel de Gualdape to the English colony of Jamestown which was further north of the Spanish colony. Place- description of the region based on physical features

    Natural and Manmade features. The rich and fertile soil in the south led to the increase in agriculture. The rocky soil and thick forests led to the development of shipping and commerce in the northern colonies. Region- various types of divisions in the world Formal regions, functional regions and vernacular regions. Regions can be divided up like the Southern, Middle and New England colonies. Human/Environmental Interaction- how humans change the environment and how the environment changes it back Indians used the slash and burn method which meant burning forests to improve the soil’s fertility. Movement- the passage, people, goods and knowledge take

    Be able to understand the impact of early Spanish Colonization and the systems of labor used Impacted Spain by making them wealthy through mining silver and gold Forced Native Americans as labor systems and in return ensured them safety and wellbeing- encomienda system Be able to describe the role of missionaries in the new world Missionaries- sent to the New World to convert as many people as they could to their religion Be able to discuss early English explorers and their role in establishing colonies John Cabot- first Englishman to sail across the Atlantic

    • Sir Martin Frobisher- searched for the Northwest Passage
    • Henry Hudson- discovered present day Hudson Bay
    • Sir Francis Drake- first sea captain to sail his own ship around the globe Be able to define charter, royal charter, proprietary charters and how they relate to the early British Colonies.
    • Charter- all about making money
    • Royal charter- under the direct reign of the crown
    • Proprietary- one or more private land owners retain rights that are normally the privilege of the state Be able to describe the hardships faced in the Jamestown colonies and how those hardships were overcome.

    Poor leadership

    Overcome: John Smith gave hope to the colonists as a strong leader Native Americans provided them food and supplies to help with starvation Be able to discuss the role of tobacco and other staple crops in the Virginia colony, as well as other southern colonies Tabaco was the basis of the economy.

    It provided enough wealth to keep from starvation and even began in developing a class structure. Increased production meant a need for more labor which introduced indentured servants and the headright system. Be able to discuss the role of indentured servants and the head right system. Indentured servants provided labor for tobacco. They were offered transatlantic passage and eventual freedom dues. The head right system was the practice that whoever paid the passage of the laborer got 50 acres of land. This began to create a gap between the rich and the poor.

    Be able to compare and contrast the separatists and Puritans in both beliefs and goals in North America. Compare: Separatists and puritans both wanted a purer church and came to America for religion. Contrast: Puritans wanted to purify the church while the separatists wanted to leave the church. Be able to discuss the significance of the Mayflower Compact. The Mayflower compact was the agreement to create a government in which people guided their own affairs which became a founding principle of the United States. Be able to discuss the notion of religious tolerance and how it applied to the various groups in the new world.

    Religious tolerance is the idea of all people of different religions living together in peace. Be able to discuss the significance of the following conflicts: Bacon’s Rebellion- Nathaniel Bacon and his followers were unhappy with the way the powerful people in the colonies were treating them. They were angry and what set them off was Governor William Berkley’s lenient policy with the Native Americans. After the rebellion, lordly planters looked for less troublesome laborers to work which became the Africans.

    King Phillips War/The Pequot War- Tensions between the Pequots and the English created a war in an attempt to wipe out the English from America. The Stono Rebellion- 50 blacks rose up and tried to escape slavery by walking to Spanish Florida. But, they were intercepted by the militia.

    Leislers Rebellion- An uprising in New York between the lordly landholders and the aspiring merchants. Be able to define the various groups that settled in the colonies and their impact on the colonial culture Puritans- against religious tolerance and developed Massachusetts Bay colony and Connecticut colony.

    Catholics- much religious persecution of Catholics in America Germans- settled in Pennsylvania, fleeing religious persecution and, economic oppression and the ravages of war. Scot-Irish- created “Great Wagon Road”, settled in the middle of America Quakers- lenient policies toward the Indians

    Be able to discuss the founding of the various British Colonies including key leadership. Massachusetts Bay Colony- John Winthrop, founder and leader in the government Connecticut- Thomas Hooker led people from Massachusetts to Connecticut New York- Originally a Dutch colony

    Pennsylvania- William Penn received this land from King Charles Be able to define and apply the concepts of Mercantilism, Joint Stock Companies, and Balance of Trade to the colonial economies. Mercantilism-a country should try to get and keep as much money as possible Joint Stock Companies-company founded and run by a group of investors who share the company’s profits and loses Balance of Trade- more exports than imports

    Be able to discuss the significance of Benjamin Franklin and other early American intellectuals. Ben Franklin- experiments (like the kite flying incident) and his acute observations helped further the budding sciences Phillis Wheatley- a slave girl published her own book in England. Be able to discuss the significance of the Zenger Trial on later American Freedoms. John Peter Zinger- a printer in New York printed bad things about the governor and was arrested.

    He fought against these charges which began in the development of the freedom of speech. Be able to discuss the Navigations Acts, Molasses Acts, and their relation to mercantilism. Navigations Act- colonies could only sell goods to England, tightened control Molasses Act- crushed trade between North America and the West Indies. Be able to compare
    and contrast the perspective economies of the various colonies. Southern-Agriculture was the leading industry

    • Middle- grain, fishin
    • New England- lumbering and trade
    • Manufacturing and trade

    Be able to discuss early French exploration and colonization in North America and how it led to tensions with Britain. Detroit (the “City of Straits”) was founded in 1701 by Antoine Cadillac to help fend off the English from moving into the Ohio Valley. Louisiana was founded by Robert de La Salle in 1682. It reached from the headwaters of the Mississippi River down to the Gulf of Mexico. Be able to define and apply triangle trade in relation to the colonial economies and mercantilism. Triangular trade- New England with rum and go to the (2) west coast of Africa and trade the rum for African slaves. Then, it would go to (3) the West Indies and exchange the slaves for molasses (for rum), which it’d sell to New England once it returned there.

    Be able to compare day to day life in the northern and southern colonies in the areas of Women- north- very few rights to protect the integrity of the marriage, south- women were given a separate title and the ability to inherit their husbands land Children- north- extreme fertility, south-family life suffered Religion- Congressional Church, religious toleration North- Puritan lifestyle Development of towns, and problems in towns- towns in the north were more condensed while towns in the south were rural and spread out- died earlier, diseases spread Education- South-schools were rare, In New England Colonies, towns of more than 50 needed schools. Be able to discuss the role of the slave trade in the colonial economies, as well as early treatment including the introduction of slave codes. Made blacks and their children property of their masters

    Slave Codes- In some colonies, it was a crime to teach a slave to read or write, Made blacks and their children the property of their masters Be able to describe key leaders of the Great Awakening, and the movement’s impact on the colonists. Great Awakening- started many new denominations in American churches Johnathon Edwards- faith in god is greater than faith in doing good works George Whitefield

    Be able to discuss the causes and impact of early colonial conflicts with the French and the Spanish King William’s War/ Queen Anne’s War -gathered Indians to ransack each other War of Jenkins’s Ear/ King George’s War- Spanish created turmoil with the English and gave France back Louisburg The Seven Years War (Aka French Indian War)

    Be able to discuss the role of George Washington in the French and Indian War. Surrendered at Fort Necessity after 10 hours. Be able to discuss the significance of William Pitt in the French and Indian War. He took the focus off of the French West Indies (this sapped British resources). He put the focus on Quebec and Montreal (since they controlled the supply routes into New France). He replaced old, cautious officers with young, daring officers Be able to discuss the significance of the Albany Congress.

    Albany Congress- colonies met in order to untie. Although it did not work, this was a step forward in unity. Be able to describe how Pontiac’s Rebellion and the Proclamation of 1763 lead to tensions between colonists and the British Government Pontiac’s Rebellion- violent uprising to drive English out of Ohio Country Proclamation of 1763- whites were not permitted beyond the Appalachians. Colonists were upset by these absurd restrictions

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