According to the Gaia hypothesis, the earth is regulated by a Goddess who ensures stability in temperature, oxidation state, acidity, and characteristics of rocks and waters. This equilibrium is maintained through automatic and unconscious feedback processes carried out by the biota as described in James Lovelock’s book The Ages of Gaia. Although external events like volcanic eruptions, storms, climate change, and continental movement seem to affect life on earth, it ultimately relies on this inherent balance.
The Gaia hypothesis, introduced by L. Margulis and J. Lovelock in 1976, provides insights into various aspects of our world, including the origin of matter, the universe, solar system formation, and the emergence and diversification of life on Earth. Currently, a significant portion of Earth’s surface is covered by a layer of life that impacts every corner of our planet. According to the Gaia hypothesis, life possesses the ability to regulate powerful physical forces for its own benefit over extended periods of time. It suggests that life controls crucial factors such as temperature, chemical composition, oxidizing ability, and acidity in the lower atmosphere for hundreds of millions of years. In simple terms, this hypothesis proposes that life on Earth influences both physical and chemical conditions in its environment (biotic control over abiotic).
The hypothesis proposes that the reason living organisms continue to exist is because of stable conditions such as oxygen levels and climate, which create an environment that supports life. This hypothesis has been understood and discussed in different ways, leading to both criticism and support. However, there is a need for additional clarification in order to define it more accurately and enable scientific testing as a genuine theory.