According to Seligman, M. E. (1990) motivation is the driving force which helps causes people to achieve goals. It is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for humans but, theoretically, it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. But what Seligman is stating about motivation refers to human motivation.
Motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality.
Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism. According to Gale Encyclopedia (2002), the level of energy, commitment, and creativity that a company’s workers apply to their jobs.
In the increasingly competitive business environment of recent years, finding ways to motivate employees has become a pressing concern for many managers.
In fact, a number of different theories and methods of employee motivation have emerged, ranging from monetary incentives to increased involvement and empowerment. A simple statement from Kjerulf (2006) is that first, motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is when you want to do something. Extrinsic motivation is when somebody else tries to make you do so.
Whyte (2007) stated that motivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student learning. However, the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of education differs qualitatively from the more general forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter. Attendance is presence, state of being present.
It is the act of attending and being able to present yourself in a specific meeting. It also means the frequency with which a person is present, (Mifflin, 2007). Heathfield (2009) stated that attendance is the act or fact of attending (being present at) work. Also, attendance is used to define the number of persons present on a particular day at work. An attendance policy provides the guidelines and expectations for employee attendance at work or for student attendance at school as defined, written, disseminated, and implemented by an organization.
Bethune (2010) has generally found that a student’s class attendance has a positive effect on exam performance. He also added that the more lectures a student attends, the better overall grade he or she obtains. His conclusions reflect the consensus view from the broad array of literature on the subject.
Bethune, John J. (2010). Attendance, grades and learning in the class. Journal of Economics and Education Research. Page 214. Gale Encyclopedia of Education. (2002). Gale Encyclopedia of Education. The Gale Group, Inc. Kjerulf, A. (2006). Why Motivation by Pizza Doesn’t Work. ” Happy Hour is 9 to 5 – How to Love Your Job, Love Your Life and Kick Butt at Work. Pages 64, 66-68. Heathfield, S. (2009). Attendance. About. com Guide. The New York Times Company. Mifflin, H. (2007). Attendance. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Seligman, Martin E. P. (1990). Human Motivatio. Learned Optimism. Page 101. Whyte, Cassandra B. (2007). An Additional Look at Orientation Programs Nationally. National Orientation Directiors Association. Pages 71-77. Vol. 15.
Cite this Review of Related Literature: Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation in the Attendance of Students
Review of Related Literature: Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation in the Attendance of Students. (2017, Mar 16). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/review-of-related-literature-extrinsic-and-intrinsic-motivation-in-the-attendance-of-students/