Sex Trafficking Essay
CJ 411: Dr. Shrock
November 10, 20011
Sex Trafficking: Africa to Europe
Transnational crime is a complex issue and sex trafficking is just one of these many issues. In this paper I am going to discuss when and where these transnational crime groups first engage in the activity, how this benefits the transnational crime groups involve, discuss how the emergence and ongoing conduct of the criminal activity has been facilitated or hindered by the groups own characteristics and by the elements of external environment, and I will explore prospects and possible strategies for eliminating criminal activity. I will also discuss the criminal network involve in sex trafficking.
Before I begin in debt discussion about trafficking one must first understand what it is. Sex trafficking is define by the UNESCO as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation” ( United National, Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2005: 16 ). Due to the end of the Cold War, an expanded number of laborers of all sorts moved from Eastern to Western Europe. Some of these laborers were sex workers. “Women, some who may have been victims themselves, play an important role in exploiting the victims. The traffickers are often of the same nationality as the victim” (UNODC 2010:3). According to the Global crime report the techniques used to recruit vary by source country: in Eastern Europe, victims maybe collected through employment agencies, while in West Africa, family and social networks are utilized. Groups engaging in trafficking for exploitation are small. The victims of sex trafficking can be voluntary or involuntary..
Sex Trafficking Essay
Abstract Sex trafficking is an old profession that is increasing rapidly. Sex trafficking is the most modern-day slavery. The means of trafficking is threatening or the use of force, coercion, abduction, abuse of power or vulnerability, or giving payments or benefits to a person in control of the victim. Trafficking is for the purpose of exploitation, which includes prostitution, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery or similar practices. Sex trafficking can have psychological affects the victims including children. Sex trafficking is expanding throughout the world and is an enormous problem in today’s society.
In this century, sex trafficking is more common than ever. Although it is part of the oldest profession in the world, it has not gotten better; it has gotten worse. Sex trafficking is expanding internationally, but also expanding in the United States as well. Sex trafficking is the most modern-day slavery. Trafficking is not only slavery, but is also now one of the biggest businesses in the world. Trafficking is the fastest growing business of organized crime and the third largest criminal enterprise in the world according to Walker- Rodriguez A. and Hill R.
“ Human Sex Trafficking”. According to Walker-Rodriquez A. and Hill R. “Human Sex Trafficking”, mostly females and children are enslaved in the commercial sex industry for little or no money. The promise of a good job or a false marriage proposal may be enough to lure victims, stated by “Human Sex Trafficking” Walker- Rodriguez A. and Hill R. Victimized children are often runaway or unwanted youth who live on the streets stated in a 2011 report by Cox S. “What is Sex Trafficking”. According to “Human Sex Trafficking”, Walker- Rodriguez A. and Hill R. stated that victims of sex traffickers are forced into prostitution, pornography, stripping, live-sex shows, mail-order brides, mail prostitution, and tourist prostitution. Sex Trafficking may include escort and massage services, private dancing, drinking, and photographic clubs, major sporting and recreational events, major cultural events, conventions, or tourist destinations according to Cox S. “ What is Sex Trafficking”. Cox S. “What is Sex Trafficking also stated that victims of sex trafficking risks an addiction to drugs and alcohol addiction, physical injuries, sexually transmitted diseases, and forced or coerced abortions.
To ensure the victims compliance, sex traffickers use starvation, confinement, beatings, physical abuse, rape or threats of violence to victims or their families or threats to expose their activities to their families and friends (Cox S. “What is Sex Trafficking”). Stated by Walker- Rodriguez A. and Hill R. “Human Sex Trafficking”, majority of these victims are runaway or thrown- away youths who live on the streets and become victims of prostitution. These children usually come from families who have been abused or from families who have abandoned them according to Walker- Rodriguez A. and Hill R. “Human Sex Trafficking”. They become involved in prostitution to support themselves financially or to get things they feel they need like drugs (Walker- Rodriguez A. and Hill R. “Human Sex Trafficking”). Other people are recruited to prostitution through forced abduction, pressure from parents or through deceptive agreements between parents and traffickers stated by Walker- Rodriguez A. and Hill R. “Human Sex Trafficking”. Criminal networks transport these children around the United States by cars, buses, vans, trucks, and even planes according to Walker- Rodriguez A. and Hill R. “Human Sex Trafficking”. Stated by Walker- Rodriguez A. and Hill R. “Human Sex Trafficking”, the average age at which girls first become victims of prostitution is 12 to 14 and boys 11-13. An estimated 293,000 American youths are currently at risk of becoming victims of commercial sexual exploitation according to Walker- Rodriguez A. and Hill R. “Human Sex Trafficking”. According to a 2001 report by Richard J. Estes and Neil Alan Weiner, approximately 55% of street girls were engaged in formal prostitution and about 75% worked for pimps.
“Child Trafficking Statistics” stated that the global market of child trafficking at over $112 billion a year with over 1. 2 million child victims. As many as 2. 8 million children run away each year with the United States within 48 hours of hitting the streets, one- third of the children are lured or recruited into the underground world of prostitution and pornography according to “Child Trafficking Statistics”. The average age of entry for children victimized by the sex trade industry is 12 years (“Child Trafficking Statistics”).
Stated by “Child Trafficking Statistics”, approximately 80% of human trafficking victims are women and girls and up to 50% are minors. “Child Trafficking Statistics” also stated that 300,000 children in the U. S. are at risk every year for commercial sexual exploitation. 600,000 – 800,000 people are bought and sold across international borders each year; 50% are children, most are female. The majority of these victims are forced into the commercial sex trade stated by, U. S. Department of State, 2004, Trafficking in Persons Report, Washington, D. C.
An estimated 14,500 to 17,500 foreign nationals are trafficked into the United States each year (“Child Trafficking Statistics”). The number of U. S. citizens trafficked within the country is even higher, with an estimated 200,000 American children at risk for trafficking into the sex industry (“Child Trafficking Statistics”). Stated by “Child Trafficking Statistics”, an average serial child molester may have as many as 400 victims in his lifetime. According to “Child Trafficking Statistics”, Child pornography is one of the fastest growing crimes in the United States right now.
Nationally, there has been a 2500% increase in arrests in 10 years. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, which helps to identify and locate children in pornography photos and videos, says it’s staff reviewed more than 10. 5 million images in 2009 alone. Reports of exploited children grow every year, in 2009, the National Center of Missing and Exploited Children received more than 120,000 reports o n its cyber tip line. In 2010, the number grew to over 160,000 with the vast majority being from child pornography stated by “Child Trafficking Statistics”.