From 500 BCE to 1400 CE, the Indian Ocean regions (Middle East, Russia, and Asia) dealt with many economic, cultural, and political changes , from the Mongol rule. The Mongolians had an enormous effect on these regions and were always violent and aggressive in the way they attacked and conquered them. Politically, in the 13th Century, in china, all the Chinese dynasties were under the mongol rule, in the middle east, Hulegu defeated the Abbasid but allowed local rulers to rule, and also the Mongol defeat the Egyptian slave dynasty, Malmuks in 1260.
Economically, in the 14th century, taxes were placed on the Chinese in the Yuan dynasty, the Middle East Asians of the Abbasid, and the Russians on the Golden Horde from the mongols. Culturally, the 15th century was a period when huge areas of Asia and Europe were under one rule and finally, brought the Mongolian Peace. However, long distance travel for trade, hunger for expansion, the Silk Road was the major trade route, and the desire for exotic goods such as silk and spices remained the same over time.
Also, trade was a big factor that led dynasties and different people to mix up, learn more about one and another’s religion, cultural, and languages, and trade also caused a diverse interaction between them. Although some regions after being conquered were under the mongol rule , but others ruled themselves under the Mongolians supervision , along with paying taxes. All regions dealt with the influences that the mongols had brought with them , such as cultural , religions, and languages.