Agriculture allowed for advanced cities and some advanced technologies, like bronze tools, enabled humans to progress. 2. Compared to uncivilized societies, some major drawbacks of civilizations include the implementation of social classes or caste systems. These distinctions drew the line between the upper and lower class and caused conflict. Since the beginning of civilization women became of less importance than in hunter gatherer societies and therefore were treated more poorly. Civilization has also caused a greater impact on the Earth than uncivilized societies. . Jewish monotheism was a significant factor in the development of our history. Judaism, one of the first monotheistic cultures, provided a basis for other religions such s Christianity and Islam. The Jews religion was not only just a collection of rituals and ceremonies, but a way of life and ethics. The Jewish culture provided diversity in early civilizations however; they still remain as the minority in religion in the Middle East. 4. The early river valley civilizations can be compared and contrasted in many ways.
Both Mesopotamia and Egypt worshipped many gods and were considered polytheistic. These two civilizations also developed their own form of written language; hieroglyphics in Egypt and cuneiform in Mesopotamia. In contrast, one difference between the two civilizations was hat Mesopotamia, although protected by many geographic barriers, was still susceptible to attacks from all angles whereas the Egyptians were more protected by the Sahara desert. 5. The development of writing in early river valley civilizations changed almost every aspect of human life.
The development of cuneiform in Mesopotamia allowed citizens to use a written form of language which led to the creation of the Code of Hamburg. These written forms of language, often represented by symbols, provided a basis for government and a way to document codes and laws. Chapter 2 6. In 6th century China a scholar and philosopher left his hometown in search of employment; his name was Confucius. Confucius developed a form of government called Confucianism that was recorded in the Analects. Confucianism was a code of ethics that stressed the importance of social class and order.
Respect for parents and elders, also known as filial piety, was something Confucius and the Chinese thought was of utmost importance. 7. Wide’s system of bureaucracy benefited the Chinese civilization by strengthening its government. Workers were given examinations in order to receive their jobs, his way only the qualified could do certain occupations. Loyal followers were rewarded with government jobs, and even taxes were levied in order to pay for the system of bureaucracy. Bureaucracy insured that only the most qualified could complete civil service jobs correctly. 8.
Taoism and Confucianism were widely accepted throughout China, because although they were almost the complete opposite, their beliefs did not conflict with each other. Taoism was mostly a set of religious beliefs that were based off of harmony and peace. Like Taoism, Confucianism was also a set of ethics, but applied to government and to so much religion. 9. Classical China was a civilization based entirely off of social class and hierarchy. Women, like in all agricultural civilizations, played the submissive role to men. In China, not only was family life mainly patriarchal, but so was their government.
Social status had much value to the Chinese and often had influence over every aspect of their lives. The emperor, obviously, held the most power, with government officials below him, then peasants and slaves. 10. Throughout all civilizations, especially China, trade and commerce had strong influence and connected the world. The Chinese traded mostly long the Silk Roads, with silk being the main export that was sold to many different civilizations. The increase in trade also brought the advancement of new technologies, most of which consisted of textiles and porcelain.
The advancement of agriculture also allowed civilizations to expand in population, therefore increasing the amount of items manufactured and exported. Chapter 3 11. The caste system was a social class system implemented by the Aryans after they conquered the Indian civilizations. This system organized the Indian people into groups from which they could not escape, once classified that way you could to switch classes. On top were the Aryans and on bottom were the so called ‘untouchables’. The Indians believed that one would be reincarnated until they reached the highest caste and after that they would reach enlightenment. 2. Hinduism, the religion accepted widely throughout Indian’s majority, had no single founder. In addition, Hinduism not only set guidelines for spiritual life, but also ethical and economic life. Buddha believed that life is suffering whereas Hindus believed in karma, what goes around comes around. Buddhists believe in no god, but Hindus believed in many. Hindus had reincarnation and Buddhists ad enlightenment. 13. The Indian caste system was based upon Hindu culture and ideas. The caste system implemented by the Aryans separated Indians based on their occupation and birth.
Hindus believed that you could not move between castes until you were reincarnated; the highest caste being the most enlightened. The Chinese system of social hierarchy was also based upon occupation except you could move between classes if you worked hard enough. Chinese social classes were based on education and merit. 14. The Murals and the Guavas were two of Indian’s biggest empires. The first of Indian’s biggest empires was the Maureen founded by Contractual Marry. The Silk Roads were established during the rule of the Margins.
The next big empire in India was the Guppy Empire founded by Chancre Guppy. The Guppy Empire was the height of the ancient Indian civilization, it was also known as the Golden Age. During this time artists were paid for their work. 15. Agricultural surplus caused big changes in Indian society. Because of the popularity of the Silk Roads that passed through India, imports from Europe and Arabia caused economic prosperity throughout India. However, the merchants and traders that made up the lower castes unfitted the most from the increase in trade and therefore became of more wealth.
This caused subtracts, or sati, to be created and became the backbone of Indian society and made up for the lack of a strong central government. Chapter 4 16. Both Greece and Rome both based their governments off of city-states. Because of Grace’s mountainous geography it had many city-states whereas Rome was one large polis that functioned as a large city. The Romans political structure was represented by two political parties in the Senate. The Greeks held elections for public office in which candidates had no qualifications in order to be elected. 17. Hellenic culture is described as the blend of Greek, Egyptian and Indian culture.
After Alexander the Great conquered what made up the Mediterranean, Middle East and northern Africa it blended together those cultures through trade and travel. During this time period Alexander the Great has rule of the Mediterranean and Middle East and it was significant because during this time there was the increase of trade that blended these cultures. 18. Both the Greeks and Romans were a polytheistic people. Because of this almost every aspect of Greek and Roman life was dedicated to the gods. Many read philosophers lead the way during each civilization’s classical period.
Greek poets like Sophocles and Homer created new art that shapes literature today. The Romans thought of new ways of architecture that are still used today, and some of their structures are so sturdy they are still standing even after thousands of years. 19. Women, although still subordinate to men, still held a significant role in Greece-Roman society. Women were a force in the household and took care of children, cooking and other household chores. In society, women were above slaves in social class, but still below men. Slaves were the stews of all social classes in both Greece and Rome.
All men COUld be elected public officials regardless of social class, but often elections were biased based on popularity and wealth. 20. Rome was basically the heir to the Greek classical civilization because they picked up where Greece had left off. Rome was greatly influenced by Greece and it was made apparent through their implementation of Greek architecture in Roman cities and their polytheistic nature. Long after the Greek civilization saw its collapse, Rome had conquered what was ancient Greek and became the economic center of the Mediterranean in place of the Greeks.
During the reign of the Greeks they were the most developed civilization and after their fall the Romans took their place and became the most advance civilization of its time. Chapter 5 21. Most of the classical civilizations stressed the basics. These included a sedentary lifestyle, agriculture and livestock domestication. Although considered a bad thing today, classical civilizations also stressed social classes and inequality which kept the framework of civilizations organized.
The goal of most classical civilizations was to expand their rule and spread their beliefs to as many regions s possible, and because of this most early civilizations had strong militaries. 22. The most important thing to remember while analyzing Romeos decline is that, because of its size, Rome was susceptible to many invasions. Typically financial and economic issues also caused the fall of large empires and it applied to Rome as well. Also, after the empire split in two, this caused the collapse of the western half because most of the empire’s revenue came from the east.
In the end however, while Rome increased in size it also became more corrupt as a series of malignant rulers caused the empire’s decline. 3. The decline of Han China was very similar to that of Romeos. Both civilizations were too large to control, regardless of a strong central government and organized social class system. Like Rome, Han China was also weakened by invasions from nomadic people of the steppes. In the end, size because the main factor of the collapse of Han China, because it was almost impossible to defend that much area of land from all sides. 4. Many new religions had developed in ancient civilizations such as Islam, Buddhism and Christianity. Muhammad, credited with being the last prophet of Islam, developed the religion in its early stages and spread it throughout Arabia and the Middle East with the help of many followers. Jesus did the same with Christianity and Buddha with Buddhism when they convinced humans of their beliefs by giving them a reason to live and abide by the laws so that they could reach enlightenment or be accepted into the kingdom of god.
Because of this reward, many people were attracted to these new religions. Trade also helped spread new religions. 25. Early on in our planet’s history, most of the world was inhabited by pastoral nomads who moved from place to place in search of food ND resources. The Mongols, one of the most powerful groups in history were nomads who swept through entire civilizations and conquered huge empires. These pastoral nomads played a huge role in civilization because they migrated from place to place, but also in commerce because they made great merchants who could travel the world and trade.
Chapter 6 26. Islam helped fix fundamental problems in Arabian society by first uniting the Arabian tribes who were at war with each other by giving them something to agree upon. Islam also helped end religious practices and idol-worship that only existed for profit. Islam brought together the people of Arabia by uniting them all with a common goal; to reach the kingdom of god. The laws and ethical codes of Islam took the place of a central government because Arabia was lacking in one. 27.
The Maydays were the first caliph, or ruling dynasty, in the Arabic world. The Mayday Empire succeeded Muhammad and succeeded in the Arbitration or the spread of Arabic as the common language within the empire. The Maydays conquered the Middle East and much of Asia because of their strive to constantly expand the empire. They ruled the Middle East and parts of India and southeast Asia. 8. Both the Basics and the Maydays brought stability to different parts of the Islamic world with them both bringing together and stabilizing the Sunnis and Shiite Muslims.
The Maydays were relatively tolerant in religion, but had no social mobility by not allowing its citizens to move between social classes and because of this had a less diverse administration than the Basics. The Basics based their laws on that of the Quern whereas the Maydays were a little more tolerant in religion however, both empire still implemented Islam heavily in their government. 29. One great achievement of Islamic development as their ability to recognize that they had to come together as one empire by eliminating feuds between tribes.
Overall, this helped the Arab Muslims to unite and because of this expand their empire from modern day Iran all the way to parts of southern Spain and north Africa. The Muslims ability to maintain knowledge and recover ancient works helped Arabs learn from the past and change as an empire. 30. Women in the Islamic world did not have much freedom at all in ancient civilizations and it was much less compared to in contemporary societies. The world was dominated by patriarchal societies ND civilizations where women were almost always subordinate to men, but in Europe and more modern areas they had a lot more freedom.
In Islam the value of a woman in law was only half of that of a male and there was no limit on how many wives a man could have. In Europe however, marriage in society was mostly monogamous and women held an important role in family life. Chapter 7 31. Financial instability was a huge weakness the of later Basis empire. Constant internal warfare and violence between different groups in the Basis Empire drained the empire’s funds and led to out of hand taxation. With the alienation of the empire’s subjects, people began to steal. Thievery and looting in cities caused rulers to establish new capitals near the previous one.
Like other large empires, invasions from the outside world weakened the empire’s finances even more. 32. Women of the Basis Empire held more power than civilizations previously in that portion of the world, but still were highly restricted. Of course wives and daughters of highly ranked men held more power than that of lower class women, but were still treated as second class citizens compared to men. Lower class, Basis women were very important mostly in family life but also laded a big role in the agriculture business by helping farm.
Overall this meant that lower class women had more of an impact than that of the upper class women because of their effect on the empire’s revenue, but still were very limited in social rights 33. One great achievement of Islamic development during the Basis Empire was their ability to recognize that they had to come together as one empire by eliminating feuds between tribes. Overall, this helped the Arab Muslims to unite and because of this expand the rule of the Basics from modern day Iran all the way to parts of southern Spain and North Africa. The
Muslims ability to maintain knowledge and recover ancient works helped Arabs learn from the past and change as an empire. 34. Since before Muhammad had begun the spread of Islam throughout Arabia, Muslim merchants have been in contact and have traded with India. First Islamic militants conquered Indian land however they did not force their religion upon the Indians, but heavily taxed non- Muslims so that Indians who were financially unstable were forced to convert. Today much of the Indian subcontinent is Muslim including parts of modern day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh and is the most populous area of Muslims in the oral. 5. One factor that allowed Muslims to persuade Indians into Islam was that they did not force the Indians into the religion, but made it seem like life was better with Islam. The Muslims did not completely force Islam upon the Indians, but there were some elements of conventional tactics. Muslims enforced taxes on non-Muslims in the Indian society so that the financially unstable almost had to convert. The Muslims were successful into converting the Indians to the extent that today the Indian subcontinent is one of the most populous Islamic states, however Islam did mix with other religions such as Hinduism in India.
Chapter 8 36. Before Islam became the predominate religion in Africa, animism was the primary religion. Polytheistic rituals that honored different animals as gods were the typical form of religious ceremony in Africa. The African civilizations were not as united as they were before Islam. There was still trade between the African states where merchants sold gold for salt however, trade increased and expanded slower than without Islam. Other common elements of African society included animism, divided states and lack of trade. 37.
After some of Muhammad disciples were facing persecution in their home lands, he sent hem to an African city that, like the rest of Africa, became a safe haven for Muslims. Africa was the first place Islam was practiced outside of the Arabian Peninsula and today is home to Egypt, the largest Islamic state in the world. After many invasions, because of its organization and appeal to early humans, Islam spread like wildlife across the continent. 38. The beliefs of indigenous African peoples were focused mainly on animism and equality was a very important factor in their lifestyles.
Once Islam was implemented in Africa it mixed with the social beliefs of the native Africans, including equality with women, however they greed on the belief in one god. The blend of Islam in Africa with native beliefs had a positive effect on the continent where today Africa is home to the world’s largest Islamic state; Egypt. 39. East Africa and the Islamic states in the Middle East were primarily connected by trade. Salt, an important natural resource that was abundant in the Middle East, was traded with the luxury of gold that could be mined in Africa.
Once Islam became more prominent in Africa, more trade routes connected the two areas of the world. The three empires in East Africa, Ghana, Mali and Shanghai, became primarily Islamic. 40. Civilizations such as Nubian and Ethiopia developed in Africa and were not directly impacted by Islam. Chapter 9 41. Geographically, the Byzantine Empire was significant to the European civilization because it acted as a barrier between the Middle East and the rest of Europe, keeping it safe from larger invasions. Also, after the fall of the Roman Empire, the Byzantines maintain and kept records and documents from the fallen empire and kept its legacy alive.
During the Crusades, when Europeans were passing through the Byzantine Empire they discovered the texts and brought them back to Europe. Constantine, the emperor of Byzantine Empire was he first major ruler to accept Christianity and it spread throughout Europe after that. 42. The main difference between Orthodox Christianity and Roman Catholicism was that during the reign of the Roman Empire, the West, including Rome was a part of Roman Catholicism and the East, including Greece, was Orthodox Christian.
The difference between the two is that after the great Schism, when the church split, the Roman Catholics believed that the pope had the power to rule the church and the government. However, the Orthodox Christians disagreed and believed that the government and church should e separate and the pope should not have the power to control both. 43. The common feature both the Chinese and Byzantines share in political organization is that both empires mixed together the church and the state. The Byzantine emperor was the head of both the religious aspects and the law in the empire and the Chinese emperor followed the Mandate of Heaven.
Both empires had leaders that were considered almost divine or godlike because for the Chinese they believed that the Mandate of Heaven chose your family to rule because they were divine or the chosen ones. In the Byzantine Empire, if the emperor id a good enough job while he ruled he was considered a god. 44. Although the Byzantine Empire faced a number of external enemies, its biggest enemy was itself. A series of weak rulers, one after the other, first caused financial and political instability.
The Byzantine Empire was so diverse because of its size and because of that so many different groups disagreed and it caused tension between the Latin speaking West and the Greek speaking East. Like the Romans, invasions were the overall factor that caused the collapse of the Byzantine Empire. 45. Parts of the Byzantine Empire were located along the Black Sea here today modern day Russia resides. The biggest impacted the Byzantine Empire had on the development of early Russia was that they converted the Slavs to Christianity and converted them to Slavic language.
Orthodox Christianity then became the early religion of the Russians after Vladimir mixed with the Byzantines. Byzantine art also influenced the Russians and even today you can see the domes on Russian churches resemble that of the Byzantines. Chapter 10 46. The Dark Ages of Middle Ages is the period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 15th century, or the Renaissance. This was a rough time for Europe after the collapse of one of the strongest empires ever known to man. During this time the barbaric Franks rose to power and the Vikings invaded many parts of Europe and the Americas.
It is described as the Dark Ages because almost all forms of art stopped and was put on hold and selfish rulers had too much power. This age was marked by the bubonic plague that wiped out almost two-thirds the population of Europe. 47. Feudalism was a concept in the Middle Ages that was based on the exchange of land for military service or protection. The concept of feudalism was simplified into a pyramid of hierarchy were secants or serfs were at the bottom. Pieces of land, or fiefs, were given to serf in exchange for their loyalty.
An unhealthy amount of taxes were imposed on the serfs and on top of that serfs were not allowed to leave the place that they were born. During this time religion became very important because it gave humans during this sad time hope. 48. The Middle Ages were a very gloomy part of our planet’s history and because of that religion became a crucial factor in everyday life. The most significant epidemic our world has ever seen was the spread of the bubonic plague that wiped out almost two-thirds of Rupee’s population. Because of this people looked to religion to save them and give them hope during this bad time.
During this time, people believed in many strange superstitions, even though the church turned them down. 49. After the bubonic plague wiped out almost two-thirds of Rupee’s population and a large portion of the world’s there were a lot less people. Because of the rapid decline in population, once the plague had surpassed there was more space and natural resources for the ones that survived the disease. Another benefit to the lower population numbers was higher wages for workers and more land space per errors that allowed for even more money.