, Research Paper
Oprah, Uma. Uma, Oprah. 1 Homer, Virgil. Virgil, Homer. The Aeneid, the greatest Latin
heroic poem of the conflicts and rovings of the Trojan hero, Aeneas, and his initiation of the opinion line
for the Roman Empire was written by the great Latin poet Virgil. Or so it seems. When one is
reading the Aeneid and has besides read both Homeric heroic poems, one can about immediately see many
analogues between Homer and Virgil. Not merely are at that place analogues in the existent manner of authorship,
but the most outstanding analogues come in the facets of construction, events, and word picture.
The Aeneid is, in actuality, & # 8230 ; a structural and thematic reworking of both heroic poems of Homer. 2
The Aeneid is clearly modeled in the beginning after the Odyssey while in the terminal it is modeled
after the Iliad. The occurrences and actions of Aeneas are really similar to both those of Odysseus
and subsequently of Achilles. Many of the characters themselves are besides modeled after Homer s
characters. There are besides many small inside informations here and at that place which show that Virgil surely
modeled his heroic poem after Homer, non to plagiarise, but for the manner and the usage of a theoretical account for
human penetration and feeling. When reading the Aeneid, one can clearly see and hear the Homeric
reverberations present in the heroic poem.
The Aeneid is clearly divided into two parts, The Odyssean Aeneid 3 and, The
Iliadic Aeneid. 4 The first six books are based on the Odyssey while the last six books are
based on the Iliad. To clearly see that Virgil was so establishing his working on Homer, allow us
analyze the Homeric reverberations that are present in the first half, or the Odyssean Aeneid. The first
analogue that presents itself is the immediate state of affairs of Aeneas and his ships. Merely as Odysseus
and his crew were lost after the terminal of the Trojan War, so excessively are Aeneas and his crew. Just like
Odysseus was battered by a storm and about killed after go forthing Calypso s island5, so excessively are
Aeneas ships being battered by a storm set on by Juno. The general state of affairs is the clear
analogue, nevertheless. Not merely the storm, but the fact that Aeneas and his ships are rolling lost
for many old ages and at the clemency of a vindictive God, and the fact that they will finally set down on
a friendly shore merely like Odysseus landed on the Phaeacian shore6, is about an exact reproduction of
Odysseus state of affairs in the Odyssey. When Aeneas arrives on Punic dirt, he, merely like
Odysseus did when he arrived in Phaeacia7, tells the narrative of how he arrived and under what
circumstances8 both told in bestiring flashbacks. Another similarity to the Odyssey are the
competitions and games. While in the land of the Phaeacians, Odysseus participates in the competitions
there9, while Aeneas holds similar competitions to honour the decease of his male parent Anchises10. Just as
Aeneas leaves the land of the Carthaginians, Dido places a expletive on him similar to the 1
Polyphemus topographic points on Odysseus when she says, & # 8230 ; I hope and pray that on some grinding reef/
Midway at sea you ll imbibe your punishment/ And call and call on Dido s name! 11 This leads to
possibly the most obvious analogue between the Odyssey and the Aeneid, the visits to the
underworlds12. Just like in the Odyssey where Odysseus receives advice on how he should
proceed to acquire himself place, here excessively does Aeneas have advice on how he should acquire to Italy
and how he will hold to contend a bloody war with the dwellers there upon his reaching. Merely as
Odysseus meets the psyche of people he knew, so excessively does Aeneas as he meets Dido, Palinurus,
and his male parent Anchises. The fact that he does go forth Carthage raises a really elusive reverberation between
Homer and Virgil, the rejection of felicity or immediate luxury in exchange for the battle
for something much better. In the Odyssey, Odysseus rejects felicity and luxury with
Nausicaa, Circe, and Calypso to fight and possibly even die to return place to his ain married woman.
So excessively does Aeneas reject felicity and luxury with Dido, even though he is genuinely in love with
her, to fight and pay war on a foreign land to establish an imperium for his hereafter posterities.
Besides the Homeric reverberations to the Odyssey, the last half of the Aeneid is an reverberation of
Homer & # 8217 ; s Iliad. It is so after Book VI that Virgil turned, & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; to the Iliad and modeled his last
six books on Homer & # 8217 ; s tragic verse form of war. & # 8221 ; 13 The first obvious analogue here is the presence of a
major war. In the Iliad the war is between the Greeks and the Trojans, while in the Aeneid, the
conflict is between the Trojans and the Latins led by Turnus. Both conflicts are evocative of each
other as being fought by big enemies and being particularly violent and ghastly. There is even
a besieging that occurs similar to the Greeks ramping the metropolis fortress of sacred Ilion when the Latins
attempt to ramp the Trojan bulwarks. One obvious similarity is the naming of a armistice and the choosing
of the two title-holders to make up one’s mind the war14. In the Iliad it is Paris and Menelaus who are to contend
and make up one’s mind the war while in the Aeneid it is Aeneas and Turnus. Both armistices finally end with
a deity doing person to interrupt the armistice and injure one of the title-holders as an pointer
Menelaus and a spear lesions Aeneas. Another similarity is the decease of the closest
friend of the strongest hero. In the Iliad it is Patroclus & # 8217 ; decease that eventually motivates Achilles to
enter the war while in the Aeneid it is Pallas & # 8217 ; decease that causes Aeneas, even though he is already
contending in the war, to increase his energy and enthusiasm for the battle. Aeneas, like Achilles,
heartaches to a great extent over the decease of his close friend. One really interesting analogue between the Iliad
and the Aeneid is the crafting of the shield for the hero15. Both shields represent assorted aspects
of the societies from which each warrior comes. Both are besides crafted by the God of the forge:
Vulcan, Hephaestus in the Greek. Another major reverberation from Homer in the Aeneid is the conflict
between Aeneas and Turnus. This conflict is about a reproduction of the heroic poem battle between
Achilles and Hector. Between Achilles and Hector, Achilles had to trail him around the metropolis
three times before Hector was eventually stopped by Athena to make conflict while in the Aeneid Turnus,
& # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; Swifter than air current he fled, & # 8221 ; 16 is reminiscent of how Hector fled Achilles and he besides, & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; ran,
weaving circles at a loss/ This manner and that & # 8230 ; & # 8221 ; 17 merely like Hector. Aeneas excessively is merely similar Achilles
who could non catch up with Hector as Aeneas, & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; pressed on heatedly, fiting pace for pace, /
Behind his shaken foe. & # 8221 ; 18 The manner Turnus dies is even evocative of how Achilles kills Hector
by allowing him speak before he really delivers the decease blow while at his clemency.
Homer is besides echoed in Virgil by the characters themselves. A close reading of the
characters and the manner they act reveals that they are in fact modeled on Homer & # 8217 ; s characters. The
foremost character that is modeled on Homer is Aeneas. Aeneas is a combination of both Odysseus
and Achilles. He is Odysseus in the manner that he is seeking to predominate against the wrath of a God
and canvas to a finish while being presented with battles along the manner such as storms, the
Charybdis, and Polyphemus, all like Odysseus had to face. Aeneas even has to travel into the
underworld like Odysseus did to have advice and hear prognostication about his immediate hereafter.
He is like Achilles in that he is the best warrior that the Trojans have and besides like Achilles he is
the boy of a goddess. He besides loses a close friend like Achilles does and is the 1 who slays the
other ground forces & # 8217 ; s title-holder after a pursuit and battle. The character of Turnus is based on Hector from
the Iliad. Just like Hector, he is supporting his land against encroachers and what he sees as a menace
to his full manner of life. Just like Hector who dies in the battle for his metropolis, so excessively does Turnus.
They both die really similar deceases at the custodies of the warrior heroes. Pallas is based on the
character of Patroclus. Just like Patroclus to Achilles, so excessively was Pallas a good friend to the
hero, in this instance Aeneas. Unfortunately, besides like Patroclus, he is killed in the heat of conflict by
the enemy s title-holder, Pallas in his hastiness to fall in war at a immature age, while Patroclus hastiness was
traveling excessively far up in the ranks of the Greeks to contend the Trojans. Even Aeneas boy Ascanius or
Iulus is based upon the Telemachus that Homer based his Telemachus on, the immature male child unable
as yet to travel to war, but idolising and idolizing his male parent as the ideal warrior. The Gods are
besides based on each other. While in the Odyssey it is Poseidon who causes all the problem for
Odysseus, in the Aeneid, it is Juno who causes much the same problem for Aeneas every bit good.
Clearly Virgil is copying Homer s wrath subject from the Iliad and the Odyssey. There is besides a
analogue between Dido and the adult females in Homer. Both adult females in Homer, Helen and Penelope,
are strong minded and loyal, so excessively is Dido. Besides, the warrior princess in Book XI could besides be
testimonial to the strong adult females of Homer. Even the Trojans themselves have reversed function with the
Greeks of the Iliad as they are now seen as the encroachers.
In the Aeneid, Virgil has many analogues to Homer. These reverberations range from characters
to plot to the construction itself. Virgil uses the manner and devices of Homer as a tool for non merely
stating a arousal heroic poem about the initiation of Rome, but besides as a tool for examining into the human
psyche and conveying the human status to the reader. Some of these reverberations include the
rovings of Aeneas, the monolithic conflict between the Trojans and the Latins, and some of the
characters such as Aeneas being both Achilles and Odysseus. The Aeneid, was written as a
Roman narrative about the initiation of Rome and its opinion line, and therefore one would non surmise that
there would be any analogues to a Grecian heroic poem of fiction, but so in the Aeneid, there are many
analogues or reverberations to Homer.
Bloom, Harold. Homer s Iliad. Pennsylvania: Chelsea House Publishers, 1996.
. Homer s Odyssey. Pennsylvania: Chelsea House Publishers, 1996.
. Virgil s Aeneid. Pennsylvania: Chelsea House Publishers, 1996.
Gransden, K.W. Virgil, The Aeneid. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Virgil. The Aeneid. trans. Robert Fitzgerald. New York: Vintage Classicss, 1990.
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